1.0 of a specific product and accelerate

1.0  Introduction


AI is a company which has
recently moved in to a new shared and manufacturing space and hence a new
network was required to be designed and installed. The network should be cost
effective under a proposed budget. The following report discusses about the
network standards used, appropriateness and the types of media used in cabling,
the types of connections used to transmit data to the backup site in a nearby
suburb and the transmission line speed of the proposed network for the company.

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2.0  Network standards


The role of standards


Network standards are important
in ensuring the reliability of products. Standards play a vital role in product
development by creating a rapport and through ensuring the reliability and the
interoperability of products from diverse manufacturers 1. This in return
reduce the time of manufacturing of a specific product and accelerate the time
to make it the market fast.

2.11 OSI model


The Open System Interconnection
model (OSI) is a model helps to create an environment suitable for the
communication between different elements of a network. It composed of 7 layers
as application layer, presentation layer, session layer, transport layer,
network layer, data link layer and physical layer. Each layer of this model
helps in interoperability in different ways.

Topmost layer which is
application layer supports the application services and the end-user processes
2. Interoperability with relate to dynamic processes take place in this
layer. 6th layer is presentation layer which connects application
layer to the network layer and configure data through encryption. Hence this
fulfils the requirements of data to be transmitted to network layer.

5th layer is session
layer which create, administer and conclude each session of data transmission
and control the coordination 2. 4th layer which is the transport
layer performs error correction between the host ends and managing the flow
control of data thus fulfilling performance requirements.

3rd layer; network
layer performs the forwarding and routing of data hence minimizing errors and
the traffic in transmission. 2nd layer which is datalink layer
performs the decoding and encoding processes. Also, it administers the errors
in 1st layer. Physical layer contains the different hardware and

All the layers in combination
provides the interoperability for a standardized and successful communication
between the different components of a network and make them function together.
Hence for the proposed network of AI company OSI model plays a vital




Comparison of standards


 OSI, Dod and TCP/IP standards are compared
below considering their major features and components.


DoD (department of

TCP/IP (Transmission
control protocol and internet protocol)

Composed of 7 layers

Composed of 4 layers as network
access layer, internet layer, host-to-host, process layer

Has 4 layers as application,
transport, internet, and network access layers.

Use the standard protocols to maintain interoperability of different
systems of communication

Application, presentation and session layers are
combined together to form network access layer

Access layer combines the functions of
presentation and the data link layers.

It is a reference model



Has a vertical approach


Horizontal approach

Provide connection-oriented and connectionless service


Only connectionless services are

Restoring protocols are easy when technology is altered


Restoring protocols is difficult

Act as a communication gateway


Act as a communication protocol


                                              Figure 1: Comparison of TCP/IP and
OSI models


                         Figure 2: Comparison of
TCP/IP DOD and OSI model


                        Figure 3: Comparison of
OSI and DOD model


3.0  Media types


There are 4 main types of media
that can be used in networks as twisted pair wires, coaxial cables and
fibreoptic cables and wireless connections.


3.1  Advantages and disadvantages of different media types


1       Twisted Pair wires

One of the most popular and used method of cabling is
twisted pair cabling and can be used for transmission of both analogue and
digital data. It is best suitable for transmission of data for short distances
and is one of the least expensive media 3. There are two types as shielded
and unshielded twisted pair. As these wires are thin they can break easily, and
error rates are high when compared to other types due to noise interference.
Their transmission speeds can vary from 10 to 1000 Mbps 4.


2       Coaxial cables


It can transmit to longer distances than the twisted
pair cabling and has lower error rates as they have low electromagnetic
interference levels due to the insulated outer shield and the copper conductor
in the middle 5. These cables can also be used for both analogue and digital
data transmissions. It can be hard to control when the wires become thicker and
are more expensive when compared to coaxial cables. The transmission speeds can
vary from 10 Mbps to 1000 Mbps 6.


3       Fibreoptic cables


They have a higher bandwidth than other types of
cabling and the depletion remains at a minimum level. The interference levels remain
at a lowest level and is lighter than any other type of cabling. It provides
more security as it is difficult to tap. It can have a bandwidth up to 10Gbps
7. These cables are expensive when compared to other types of cabling and
hence it is more costly method.  


4       Wireless connections


They involve the connections without cabling such as radio,
microwave and infrared. They provide better mobility when compared to wired
connections. They are more scalable and less expensive while, they may face
with lot of interference due to the signals being affected by physical factors.
They can have a maximum speed approximately about 600 Mbps and is less
manageable in times 8.

3.2  Media selection criteria


When considering the above types
of connections and when compare them under the criteria of cost, speed,
expandability, environment and security, fibreoptic cables are more effective
and is the best solution. Even they are more expensive than any other media
type, they fulfil all the company’s future requirements like no other type of
media. They fulfil the future bandwidth speed that the Ai company wants
(10Gbps). As fibreoptic is less interfered by the environmental factors it can
withstand the company’s high magnetic and radio frequencies and is having the
least probability to face wire-tapping. And also, they are capable of expanding
up to larger distances like no other type of cable and has no routing
requirements. Therefore, it is evident that they are more reliable for this
manufacturing company.






Synchronous and asynchronous connections


Asynchronous connection

In this connection the sender and
receiver make up their own transmission speeds. This method creates one frame
and an initial bit, and an ending bit is added to the packet along with a
parity bit to detect any errors in the packet. Both sender and receiver don’t
use the same clock signal. Here, the response times are not predicted. Data
transfer rates are lower when compared to synchronous data transmissions. Cheap
and the configuration is quicker due to the need of less amount of hardware 9.

Synchronous connection

Here, both the sender and the
receiver use the same clock signal in data transmission and the data is
transferred continuously. Here a receiver must be available for the
communication to be started. Transferring of data takes a higher rate. It is
easy to detect errors in this type of connection This has a higher throughput 10.
But this is expensive when compared to asynchronous transmission due to the
need of more costly hardware and the configuration is costly.


4.2  mode of connection used for the proposed network


As the company decides to
transmit the data for backup to a site in the nearby suburb, it should transmit
data sequentially and continuously without interruption and should be more
efficient. Therefore, transfer rates should be high. As the backup data should
be error free it should be easy to detect errors. Synchronous connection fulfils
all these requirements and hence is suitable for this manufacturing company.

4.3  Transmission line speed


 Length of the data record / time of
transmission = 1000/0.25

= 4000 bytes/sec


From the above calculation it is
clear that the transmission speed when the synchronous connection is used is 4000
bytes per second.

5.0 Conclusion


When considering all the details
it is clear that different network models contribute in different level for the
interoperability of products. When the different media types are considered in
detail it was evident that using fibreoptic cabling is the best solution for
the above company. Also, when the synchronous and asynchronous connections are
considered, synchronous connection is the most suitable type of connection for
the AI company.



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