Ans. cover, cut-off the emissions of CFC,

Ans. The people who are exposed to the toxic waste from the tailings become sick. They develop skin rashes, headaches, vomiting, diarohea, etc. If the water is contaminated, the people cannot use it for bathing, cooking, or washing their clothes.

Cultural degradation also occurs in mining villages. Mining often destroys sacred sites and cemeteries. The displacement of the gravel and mud obstruct the natural flow of the river. As a result, fish and other organisms die.

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Q.3. Why is mining destructive to the environment?

Ans. Trees and vegetation are cleared and burned. Natural minerals and metals are stripped from the soil. Chemicals used to amalgamate (cluster) the gold are often expelled into rivers, streams, and oceans causing pollution to the environment, animals, and people.

Q.4. Name two effects of mining on the people.

Ans. Illnesses from contaminated water and cultural degradation.

Q.5. Name two minerals or metals that are mined.

Ans. Manganese and gold.

Q.6. Discuss the procedure of EIA.

Ans. The EIA process in India consists the following phases:

Submission of Project Proposal, Screening, Scoping and consideration of alternatives, collection of Base line data, Impact prediction and Assessment of Alternatives, Submission of EIA Report, Public hearing, Decision-making and Monitoring the clearance conditions.

Q.7. What are the objectives of sustainable development?

Ans. Development should protect our biodiversity, prevent soil erosion, slow down the population growth, increase forest cover, cut-off the emissions of CFC, SOx, NOx and CO2, reduce waste generation, eliminate poverty and deprivation and bring benefits to all.

Q.8. What is Agenda – 21?

Ans. Agenda-21 proposes a global programme of action on sustainable development in social, economic and practical context for the 21st century having five significant agreements.

Q.9. Write short note on:

(a) Sustainable development

(b) Environmental impact assessment

Ans. Sustainable development is defined as ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own need’. The idea of sustainable development was conceived in early 1970’s, when the need was felt to preserve our natural resources as they were depleting at a very faster rate. The necessary conditions for achieving sustainable development are social equity, economical equity and ecological security.

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact—positive or negative—that a proposed project may have on the natural environment. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision-makers consider environmental impacts used to decide whether to proceed with the project.

Q.10. What’s the difference between large-scale mining and small-scale mining?

Ans. Large-scale mining involves a large company with many workers. These are also localised at one or two sites. Small-scale mining involves a group of travelling men, usually about 5-8, who migrate from one mining site to another.

This type of mining tends to be more destructive to the environment because of the area of land covered. It also causes more social problems because small scale miners mine where residents do not have official land titles. Tension and resentment builds and causes many social quarrels and unfortunate effects to the indigenous people.