Since children’s. The calcium is found in abundance

Since there is a steady loss of these salts from the body of the animal, therefore, they are obtained from the food material of the diet and from drinking water from time to time in order to make up the deficiency of these mineral salts. For the normal functioning of the body the following mineral salts are important:

1. Calcium:

It along with phosphorus helps in the forma­tion of many skeletons, in clotting of blood, growth, contraction of muscles and excitability of nerves.

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Its deficiency in the body leads to the poor development of skeletons and manifestation of rickets in children’s.

The calcium is found in abundance in milk, cheese, vegetables, eggs, butter, orange, and carrot. One should take 10 gm of calcium per day in his diet.

2. Phosphorus:

It is also needed for the formation of skele­ton, teeth, muscles and blood. It activates the activity of the enzymes.

It plays great role in the formation of phospholipids and nucleic acid and also controls the metabolism of the fat.

Its de­ficiency in body leads to the poor development of the skeleton and the retardation of growth.

The important sources of phosphorus are-milk, egg yolk, chees, meat, fish and certain cereals and vege­tables. According to Shermann one should take 0-88 gm of phosphorus to his diet in a day.

3. Potassium:

It is very essential for growth and normal functioning of the body. It also controls the osmotic pressure in the body. Its deficiency in the body leads nervous disorder, irregular heart beat and also poor muscular control.

4. Sodium:

It is very important salt which regulates the osmotic pressure of the body. Its deficiency leads to the nervous disorder.

The most abundant source of sodium is sodium-chloride, so called common salt.

5. Magnesium:

It is known as an activator of many enzymes. It also activates oxidative reactions and controls the actions of intestinal amino peptidase and of bone phosphatase.

Its deficiency leads to malformation of the skeleton, nervousness, poor growth and irregular heartbeats.

6. Iron:

It is essential for the formation of haemoglobin (a respiratory pigment) and chromatins. It is also present in several oxidative enzymes including cytochromes.

Its deficiency leads to anaemia. Meat, green vegetables and certain fruits such as raisins, are the important sources of iron.

7. Sulphur:

It is the essential constitnent of the protein, hence it is found in the amino acids, such as cystine and methionine. It is also found in bile salt, insulin and thiamine. It is generally used in the formation of feather and eggs of the birds.

8. Copper:

It is an essential consituent of haemocyanin present in the blood of most arthropods and molluscs. It is also present in a number of vertebrate enzymes.

In the fowl and several mammals it is important for the formation of blood. Its deficiency causes nutri­tional anemia particularly in the catties.

9. Cobalt:

It is a consituent of Vitamin B12 and also helps in the production of blood. Most vertebrates like cattle and sheep get it from their symbiotic organisms which have themselves probably synthesized it from inorganic cobalt.

10. Zinc:

It is a constituent of carbonic anhydrase and other enzymes present in the R. B. C. It helps in the conversion of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water.

11. Iodine:

It is essential for the formation of thyroxine hormone of the thyroid gland. Its deficiency causes the simple goiter. Drinking water and sea foods are the chief source of iodine.

12. Chlorine:

It is found in the body as chloride ion in combination with sodium. It is highly concentrated in the cerebro­spinal fluid.

It maintains body, acid, base and water balance. The chief sources of it are sodium chloride.

Minerals as they are vital to the body in many ways, each of them, however must be in a compound form before it can be used by the body.

Eating chemically pure elements such as sodium or chloride would be fatal. When these are in compound forms such as, sodium chloride they are harmless and in fact essential to the body.