3. Research Questions
The proposed research will address the following questions:
· What are the social and economic characteristics of the Char land households, which put them to favorable or unfavorable situations, compared to main land households?
· What types of capital assets and entrepreneurial opportunities are available to char land women and other population groups and how these are acquired or mobilized at what cost?
· What are the location and season specific costs of developing product value chains and how do they affect various forms of collective actions, especially for women farmers, entrepreneurs and women business actors?
· Who are the various actors in the emerging agricultural value chain in char land and what level of transaction and negotiation costs are involved in the business development?
· How can the value chain development help to improve the livelihoods and food security for the poor women in char land?
· Under which conditions, and how to explain the process whereby, the institutions are originate or change?
· Under which conditions the political and other social institutions are associated with labor and capital, and how they could structure interactions to generate distinctive trajectories in char dwellers ?
The specific objectives of this research are:
· To identify various types of assets available to women and other population groups in char lands with respect to their resulting past and current livelihood strategies;
· To assess the objectives, activities, resources and effects of various forms of collective actions and identify various actors and constraints with regard to the development of agricultural value chains,
· To determine the replicability of the women involved collective actions in developing agricultural value chains in other agroecologically unfavourable locations.
· To develop a framework that outlines how the charland people can develop, or upgrade their position within viable, value chain.
To towing together the theoretical point of views, practitioner learnings and the (upgrading) framework to learn lessons about how to use value chain analysis and development effectively as a tool to enhance the incomes of char land peoples.
5. Methodology of the proposed research
5.1 Selection of study area
The proposed study will be conducted at ultra poor household farms in Char areas of Sariakandi upazila of Bogra, Chouhali upazila of Sirajganj and Islampur upazila of Jamalput district. These areas in general represent the island Char areas of Jamuna river in northern Bangladesh. The stratified random sampling technique will be followed to select farm households.
5.2 Selection of households
A total of 600 poor households will be chosen taking 200 households from each district (Sariakandi, Islampur and Chouhali Upazilas of Bogra, Jamalpur and Sirajganj districts, respectively). Selection criteria’s of households will be: Migrated households; Female headed households; Institutions supported households; and Non-supported households.
5.3 Data collection and Analytical Techniques:
A set of structured interview schedules will be used for collection of primary data from the study areas. Spatial data will be collected to know the variations of data (i.e., cultivated area, production out put, types of crops, affected areas, arable soils, average rainfall and climate factors) land-use analysis, suitable locations for new farms, analysing transpotation cost, calculating cost of production per region or district. Secondary data will also be collected from various journals, reports of different universities and research organizations (i.e., Ruaral Development Academy (RDA) Bogra where there is center named Char Development Centre). We can also get time series data about char lands from RDA. Other than the survey method, will apply in-depth case studies of women entrepreneurs and illustrate the attributes of value chain through focus group discussions to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at different locations of char lands and if necessary other required data which are not incorporated in the interview schedule. The study will follow the simple statistical analysis, perception index (PI), DID (Difference-in-differences) method and the SLF approach in addition to the best fitted analytical techniques.
5.4 SWOT analysis
A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT Matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or to identify the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.
6. Expected output
Various types of assets available to women and other population groups with respect to their resulting past and current livelihood strategies will be identified;
The objectives, activities and resources of various forms of institutions and identify various actors with regard to the development of agricultural value chains will be assessed;
The effects of the various forms of institutions on the livelihoods and food security of women and other population groups will be determined; and
The replicability of the women involved in institutions in developing agricultural value chains in other agroecologically unfavourable locations will be investigated.