4-Transposition: and target language” . Baker, (2001:77) confirms


Transposition is grammatical changes as
a result of differences in both source and target languages systems. Vinay
& Darbelnet (1995:36) , transposition is ”Replacing one word class with
another without changing the meaning of the message”. Example:- The
workshop was a success:???? ?????? ????? .If
translated literally, it will be:- The workshop was successful.

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-Equivalence: Equivalence occurs when
two texts (source and target) have the same meaning and structure level.  Kenny, (1998:77) defines equivalence as
”The relationship between source text (ST) and a target text (TT) that allows
the (TT) to be considered as a translation of the (ST) in the first place ”.

Crystal, (2005:346) argues translation
aim is ”To provide semantic equivalence between the source and target
language” .

Baker, (2001:77) confirms ”Equivalence
is a central concept in translation theory, but it is also a controversial
one” .

Classification of Equivalence:

Routledge Encyclopedia of Language
(Baker 2006) , provides the following as equivalence types:-

1-Text –Normative Equivalence: The
source language and target language words are used in the same or similar
contexts in their respective languages. (Koller 1989:102).

2-Formal Equivalence: The source language
and the target language words have similar orthographic or phonological
features (Nida 1964).

3-Textual Equivalence: Combination of
source text and target text information flow and roles of cohesive devices.
(Baker 1992).

4-Functunal Equivalence: Not all
variables in translation are relevant in every situation , and thus,
translators must decide which of the variables should be given priority (Newman

Baker’s (1992) own divisions of
equivalences as follows:

1-Equivalence at word level: Aspect of word
as a unit in different languages.

2-Equivalence above word level:
Collocations, idioms, and fixed expressions.

3-Grammatical Equivalence: Grammatical
vs. Lexical categories.

4-Textual Equivalence: Thematic and
information structures: Hallidayan approach vs. The Prague school position on
information flow.

5-Textual Equivalence (Cohesion):
Conjunction, reference, lexical cohesion, and substitution and ellipsis.

6-Pragmatic Equivalence (Coherence):
Coherence and processes of interpretation (implicature).

-Deletion: Is divided into:-Full and
partial deletion.

1-Full Deletion:

2-Partial Deletion:

Examples:- 1-Pairs of shoes:?????

-Explicitation:  Klaudy, (2001:80) points out it is ”The
process of introducing information into the target language which is present
only implicitly in the source language , but which can be derived from the
context or the situation” .

Some consider explicitation as addition
, however, it is a more specific term.

Translators opt for explicitation in
translation in order to compensate the loss of meaning , to make the source
text more target –like text , and to make implicit source language text
information explicit in target language text.