A Review of the LiteratureEthics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives, . The branch of philosophy audiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human nature by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. Intellectual inquiry and philosophy is related to the state of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as “a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures”. A project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions. As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: “What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive.” And Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the very broad question, “how one should live” Ethics can also refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems that is not particular to philosophy. Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law, that do not treat ethics as a stand-alone concept. Final PaperA Review of the LiteratureA great ethical dispute in today’s society is the ability to conduct Euthanasia or assisted suicide for relieve pain and suffering. The British House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics defines euthanasia as “a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering”. In the Netherlands and Belgium, euthanasia is understood as “termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient”. The Dutch law however, does not use the term ‘euthanasia’ but includes it under the broader definition of “assisted suicide and termination of life on request”. Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries. Non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia is also illegal in all countries and is usually considered murder. As of 2006, euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics. In some countries there is a divisive public controversy over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of euthanasia. Euthinasia in my opinon is extremly important. Patients that are in critical condition with brain damage, suffer from infections and excruciating pain. Putting in a DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) is a legal order written either in the hospital or on a legal form to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation or advanced cardiac life support, in respect of the wishes of a patient in case their heart were to stop or they were to stop breathing. “No code” is a reference to the use of “code” for “calling in a Code Blue” to alert a hospital’s resuscitation team. Society has many positive and negative thoughts on euthinasia, but us as humans will settle on a agreement. Human nature will always adapt and hopefully as a civil society we would overcome this difficult roadblock on this ethical theory. Final PaperA Review of the LiteratureUniversalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability. A community that calls itself universalist may emphasize the universal principles of most religions and accept other religions in an inclusive manner, believing in a universal reconciliation between humanity and the divine. One universal theory that is very common is Natural Law. A perfect example is, reincarnation is favorable but not absolute, because life is born, it lives, and it dies nothing more nothing less. A Universal theory I personally believe in is Right Ethics. Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. This theory counters the entire perspective of Natural Law. A perfect example will be, It is our god given right to progress in scientific research that can improve life as we know it; but many people believe it is not natural to progress into the future. Amish society believes, That God has given us all the necessities to survive and create societies; and that technology in unholy and not a natural part of life. The general concept of rights is that they are entitled to by individuals in the sense that they are subsequent to do things which other people, or which governments or authorities, can not infringe. This is the understanding of people such as the author Ayn Rand who argued that only individuals have rights, according to her philosophy known as Objectivism. However, others have argued that there are scenarios in which a group of people are thought to have rights, or group rights. Accordingly: Individual rights are held by individual people regardless of their group.one can question the ability of rights to actually bring about justice. Final PaperA Review of the LiteratureThe film Blackfish tells the story of Tilikum, a performing killer whale that killed several people while in captivity. Along the way, director-producer Gabriela Cowperthwaite compiles shocking footage and emotional interviews to explore the creature’s extraordinary nature, the species’ cruel treatment in captivity, the lives and losses of the trainers and the pressures brought to bear by the multi-billion dollar sea-park industry. Is it ethical to hold animals from our beautiful planet earth like the orca whale against their own free will? An individual that has a right to something must be able to claim that thing for himself, where this entails being able to represent himself in his pursuit of the thing as a being that is legitimately pursuing the furtherance of his interests (Cf. McCloskey, 1979). Lori Marino, a neuroscience lecturer at Emory University in Atlanta who appeared in “Blackfish,” has said killer whales are among the world’s most intelligent animals. She showed perfect examples of three main ethical theories which are, Natural Law, Animal rights, and Virtue. These three main points affect the outcome of the film which is about the unethical treatment of these beautiful marine mammals and what we should be doing to protect them. The three main ethical points in the film lead to the topic of Animal rights. This idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests such as the need to avoid suffering, should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. Human culture has an extremely hard time cooperating with nature, by treating wildlife with the respect and care they deserve. This film with the cooperation with activists, have created a tremendous impact in today’s society. Many people are no truly understanding Mother Natures beauty.