Abstract 65. The conclusion synthesized from the research


The purpose of this integrative
literature review is to synthesize literature that focuses on attitudes,
behaviors, and perception of safe sex values and beliefs of males 65 and older.
The review is an accumulation of various types of quantitative, peer-reviewed,
dissertations, and other literature that looks at the quality of life in
regards to the sexual behavior of men over the age of 65. The conclusion
synthesized from the research indicates that sexuality and sexual behavior are
essential to older persons in regards to their quality of life, but when issues
come up, patients do not feel comfortable talking to their healthcare

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of Concept

increase in the age of the overall population has been accompanied by concerns
about health and quality of life. There is little known about how growing older
affects men’s sexual quality of life. There have been a few studies done that
have shown that interest persists in older adults (Nicolosi, Laumann, Glasser, Moreira, Paik, &
Gingell, 2004). It is important to understand what factors exist that
contribute to an older man’s quality of life and whether sexuality plays a role
in this. There is evidence that shows that many men have sexual problems as
they get older but they are afraid or ashamed to discuss those with their
healthcare professional (Connolly, Breckman, Callahan, Lachs, Ramsey-Klawsnik,
& Solomon, 2012).  Failure of the
healthcare professional to recognize that significance of sexuality in an older
man’s life can lead to many issues with healthcare.

 Sexual issues, including sexual dysfunction,
have been a topic of discussion among researchers for many years. Multiple
research studies are showing that sexual dysfunction is a great detractor to
one’s quality of life (Bauer, Haesler, & Fetherstonhaugh, 2016), but there
is minimal research on how healthcare professionals can make a difference in
this area. A conversation needs to take place, and healthcare professionals
need to lead the way in starting these.

 The purpose of this paper is to provide an
integrative literature review on the current research surrounding how
healthcare professionals talk to their patients about their sexuality,
particularly men over the age of 65. The following integrative literature
review has been systemically collected and analyzed using a keyword search of
sexuality in older men, sexual behaviors, sexual attitudes, sexual beliefs, and
sexual problems in older men; healthcare professionals approach to sexuality
and their patients. The review consists of data collected from qualitative and
quantitative, peer-reviewed journals that dated between 2004 and the current
date. This review will present multifaceted examinations of older men’s sexual
health and its correlation to quality of life.

Theoretical Perspectives

recent years, with an increase in the age of the general population, there has
been more discussion around the sexual health of older adults. Failure of
health care professionals to recognize this as a vital talking point often
leads to issues with well-being and safety among older people (Connolly,
Breckman, Callahan, Lachs, Ramsey-Klawsnik, & Solomon, 2012).  Research on why healthcare professionals do
not have this conversation with their elderly patients is sparse.  Perspectives on the theoretical basis of
sexual health in older adults vary extensively based on the researcher.  This integrative literature review reveals
the lack of research explicitly conducted about older adult sexuality and
overall quality of life. This author synthesizes theoretical perspectives from
research that specifically targets sexual dysfunction.  

(see Table 1) have identified various theoretical perspectives with which to
look at the sexuality of men over the age of 65 and how this contributes to
their quality of life. There appear to be many factors that contribute to a
quality of like that can be looked at according to the results of the integrative
literature review, but sexuality along with sexual issues and how to deal with
them are the ones that have the most significant impact. 

             The concept of a conceptualization appears to be a lens through
which many researchers like to look at this subject. This framework allows the
researcher to capture distinctions in the various factors that contribute to
the quality of lie and then organize these into cohorts of behaviors,
attitudes, and perceptions. It is necessary to look at the overall picture when
looking at one’s quality of life in order to see just where and how sexuality
fits into it.


of Relationships

            The literature is consistent when discussing
the relationship between sexuality and quality of life.             Research has shown that people who regarded their health as very
good to excellent were more likely to be sexually active than those who described
their health to be poor or fair. The research shows that there is a association
but not causation. Experts think that it is likely that both poor health leads
to reduced sexual activity and that sexual activity leads to better-quality
health (Connolly, Breckman,
Callahan, Lachs, Ramsey-Klawsnik, & Solomon, 2012).

The relationship on which the literature is vague, is the one between the importance of
healthcare providers discussing sexuality with patients and their quality of
life. There is some research that shows that when these conversations take
place a patient’s quality of life is improved over when they do not have these
discussions. Healthcare providers rarely offer information to or request information
from older patients about sex or sexuality, thus overlooking important health-related
data when taking histories, and missing occasions to address problems that
could improve their patients’ health, safety, and well-being (Connolly, Breckman, Callahan, Lachs,
Ramsey-Klawsnik, & Solomon, 2012).

            The research shows that sexuality continues
to be essential for many older people; nonetheless, awkwardness, displeasure
with treatment, negative approaches and seeming indifference by health
professionals can all constrain discussions. It is thought that healthcare professionals
need to implement strategies and exhibit characteristics that generate
atmospheres that are more supportive of sexuality. Issues linked to sexuality
and sexual health should be able to be discussed without uneasiness or anxiety
so that older people receive the best care and treatment (Bauer,
Haesler, & Fetherstonhaugh, 2016). Expand

Research Approaches

            The four
major research articles that discuss the concept of sexuality and quality of
life are; Bauer,
Haesler, and Fetherstonhaugh (2016), DeLamater and Sill (2005), Nicolosi, Laumann,
Glasser, Moreira, Paik and Gingell (2004), Lee, Nazroo, O’Connor, Blake,
Pendleton, Lee, and O’Connor (2016). Collectively, the researchers focus on how
sexuality affects the quality of life and how not being able to address sexual
dysfunctions with healthcare providers lowers one’s quality of life.

            Bauer, Haesler, and Fetherstonhaugh (2016)
conducted a study to review the knowledges and opinions of people aged 65 and
older on health professionals’ acknowledgment of sexuality and sexual health as
a concern for care. This literature review discusses the significance of
sexuality to well-being, language utilized, articulating sexuality, awkwardness
discussing sexuality, insufficient sexuality health education and treatment and
undersupplied communication with health-care professionals. Bauer, Haesler, and
Fetherstonhaugh (2016) concluded that sexuality continues to be vital for numerous
older people; nevertheless, awkwardness, discontent with treatment, negative approaches
and seeming indifference by health professionals can all constrain
discussions.  Issues connected to
sexuality and sexual health should be able to be discussed without nervousness
or uneasiness so that older people obtain optimum care and treatment.

            DeLamater and Sill (2005) conducted a study to
determine if an assortment of biological, psychological and social issues possibly
effect sexual functioning. Although DeLamater and Sill’s research is becoming
dated, it still represents the current research indicating that sexuality is a
factor in quality of life. The findings of this study showed that the principal
stimuluses on the strength of sexual desire among women are age, the significance
of sex to the person, and the existence of a sexual partner. Among men, they
are age, the significance of sex to the person, and education.

            Nicolosi, Laumann, Glasser, Moreira, Paik, and
Gingell (2004) conducted a study to measure the significance of sex and
the occurrence of sexual dysfunction among middle-aged
and older adults all over the world. The conclusions of this
study showed that sexual desire and activity are extensive among middle-aged
and senior men and women worldwide and persevere into old age. This is why
being able to discuss any issues or troubles with a healthcare provider are so

             Lee, Nazroo, O’Connor, Blake, Pendleton, Lee and
O’Connor (2016) conducted a
study to examine the levels of sexual activity, difficulties with sexual
functioning, and anxieties about sexual health among older adults. The findings
of this study showed that sexually active men reported higher levels of anxiety
with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages.
This again shows how important it is that patients be able to discuss any
issues that they have with their healthcare providers.

and Recommendations

majority of this integrative literature review is made up of quantitative
research that includes looking at correlations and connections between
sexuality and quality of life. The literature compiles many variables such as
sexual dysfunction, healthcare provider communication and quality of life.  The recurring theme in all the literature is
that older adults participate in sexual activity and for those that do their
quality of life is rated better than those that do not. To date, there is no
evidence to support whether this is a merely a correlation or causation.
Another reoccurring theme found in the literature is that when sexual issues or
dysfunctions occur patients are often embarrassed or afraid to talk to their
healthcare providers and this, in turn, decreases their quality of life.

            There is a need for additional
research in order to delve into the causal and correlational aspects of
sexuality and quality of life. There is also a need to develop better ways for
healthcare providers to open the conversations up to their patients about their
sexuality, particularly with their older patients. This is a vital conversation
that needs to take place but yet one that most patients are afraid to have.
This makes it even more important that healthcare providers take this on as
their responsibility.