Abstract: newspaper articles, papers written, UN reports, statements


Thesis Statement:
Pakistan and India did not agree with the terms of Non-proliferation Treaty and
did not sign it because they both feel threatened from each other and want to
deter each other’s power. Along with this, other factors such as political and
economic factors may have contributed to this decision.

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Non-Proliferation Treaty was proposed for the non-proliferation, disarmament
and peaceful use of the technology. This paper focuses on various factors which
contributed wholly to the two neighboring states who decided not to join the
Non-Proliferation Treaty and the conflict between the two which also played a
vital role. Despite of the International pressure India and Pakistan along with
Israel decided to not sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty which creates a
serious worry in the world. They both have been asserting that the nuclear
weapons are for peaceful purposes. They both have been rivals since their
inception and wouldn’t take risk to not have a safer side which they think is
to do by acquiring nuclear weapons. The conflict between these two states is
even older than their inception with the three wars they have fought and the
ongoing issue of Kashmir. Abstaining form signing this treaty also included the
political and strategic policies of both countries. Moreover the treaty where
it pointed towards a peaceful resolution by not acquiring any more nuclear
weapons it also was kind of unfair that some stated get to keep it while others
were not allowed to.


The objective of this paper
is to discuss the significance of this kind of decision of these two states and
also on the monopoly of the five major states who were allowed to keep the
nuclear power. It will also be examining the nuclear discussion going on over
the past years.The people of Pakistan and India are brought up with such a
mindset that they still after almost 7 decades believe to be each other’s worst
enemy and this situation is worsened by the Kashmir issue. In such a situation
both do not want to give up the nuclear power and want to show each other that
both are capable to face one another if the need arises. Moreover, it should be
kept in mind by every state to not use these weapons actually because it is
only going to create destruction on a global level and help no one.


The methodology that
has been used to write this paper is qualitative. It is a case study of
Pakistan and India that what caused them to not sign the NPT. The outcome that
Pakistan and India didn’t sign the NPT and wanted to know about the factors
that contributed to this kind of behavior of both states. The research material
and sources that has been used is newspaper articles, papers written, UN
reports, statements of foreign officers and a book.


Pakistan and India both
have declared that they have achieved nuclear power and express that it is
solely for peaceful purposes. However, the West still has a distrust and wants
to inspect these both states and wants them to agree to the terms of non-proliferation
treaty and sign the NPT. But both of these states have their own reasons for
not agreeing to these terms. Pakistan and Indian both see each other as potential
threats to each other and have already fought three wars with each other. It is
considered that the driving force behind Pakistan acquiring nuclear power was
India’s lead and acquisition of this power. It had been six decades since both
these states came into existence and still they are in a state of conflict with
each other.Pakistan wants to deter the nuclear power of India. On the other
hand because of Pakistan and China’s very good relations they have been coupled
together and India feels threatened from China as well as they both have a
history of war in which India was defeated in the year 1964. So, India wants to
deter the power of China.1
A serious conflict between these regional enemies can lead to very dreadful
results not only for the region but internationally as well as they both are a
major source of agriculture for the whole world.

After the World War II,
the nuclear weapons started to spread and most countries were trying to acquire
it in order to get powerful. Development was being done in the field of technology
including missiles and rockets to handle the weapons more effectively.Soon,
after the World War II, efforts were made for the non-proliferation in which
the technology at the end stayed with the US only but it was strongly opposed
by the Soviet Union and in 1949 when Soviet tested their nuclear ability a
silent war2 started
between these two states and other states as well to become nuclear states as
soon as possible. With the cold war being prevailed between these two powers
and them trying to achieve more power and becoming strong started to put
missiles in different countries and make allies. In this race, within no time
France, UK and China also gained nuclear energy. Later, for peaceful purposes
different negotiations were done between these states and a nuclear disarmament
treaty was formed for not spreading the nuclear weapons. First it was only
among these states but later was extended to the rest of the world. It was open
to every country in the world to join.



1Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Pakistan and
India, TehminaMehmood, Vol 38, No. 3, July 1995, pp 81-100

2The India Pakistan conflict and the
Non-Proliferation Treaty, Samuel E. Tyre, December 5, 2003

The Non- Proliferation
treaty was proposed in July 1968, 164 countries signed it and it was effective
from April 1970. The bombing done By US in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was witnessed
by the whole world and the destruction that it’s capable of imposing. This
treaty was formed as a result of this discomforting incident.

Many people have worked
on this issue and have written how it can be a threat to people all over the world
and is a matter of serious concern. This paper focuses on how this treaty is
important for peaceful purposes. That we know that it is a global issue and at
no price the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki should be revised. The
conflict between Pakistan and India has made both of them against this treaty
and is this reason valid and is there any serious threat that may be caused
because of these two having nuclear power and making more and more weapons.


Disarmament: The
reduction and withdrawal of Army weapons.

Nuclear Facilities: A
place where a state run out its nuclear experiments.

Cold War: The Cold war
was a state of political and military tension after the World War II between
major powers US and USSR.

UN International Atomic
Energy: Widely known as the world’s ‘Atoms for peace’ organization within the
United Nations family, the IAEA is the international center for cooperation in
the nuclear field. IT promotes the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear




Chagai I: It is the
code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan
on 28 May, 1998. The tests were performed at the RasKoh Hills in the Chagai
district of Balochistan province.

Chagai II: It is the
code name assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan following
Chagai I on 30 May, 1998 at the same place of Chagai I.


The 20th
century was the beginning of all the most deadly weapons and invention. New
technology gave rise to the nuclear energy and rockets and missiles which made
it even easier to use the nuclear bombs. Nuclear energy could be used as a
source of fuel and positive purposes but unfortunately it had been used to
destruct places and may be done again and states have been using it as a source
of power which makes you stronger and powerful than the other in the
International arena. The cold war between the US and USSR was a threat and having
more weapons would risk the security for all, multiply the miscalculations,
accidents and unauthorized use of weapons or from escalation in the tensions a
nuclear conflict. Under such a situation to create a peaceful environment in
the World Non-Proliferation Treaty was designed.

According to this
treaty the only the recognized nuclear states by 1968 were allowed to have
nuclear energy and it limited their spread of military nuclear energy. It
restricted the non-nuclear states from acquiring nuclear energy and agreement
that they will work for the disarmament of nuclear weapons. It said that
countries without nuclear weapons will allow the UN International Atomic Energy
Agency to oversee their nuclear facilities. Countries should also exchange
peaceful nuclear technologies. It has been signed by 187 countries and
Pakistan, India, Israel and Cuba has not signed it yet and South Korea also withdrew
from this treaty. Pakistan and India has performed their nuclear tests and
Israel is also considered to have nuclear energy.

When Pakistan and India refused to sign
the treaty it had a huge impact in the International world because the whole
world was looking towards peace and because of a few states it may have been in
danger. Despite the pressure and sanctions from the International community
they stood by their decision. Soon, India tested its first nuclear bomb in 1974
and then again in 1988. India is estimated to have enough missile material for
more than 150 warheads. India was
among the few countries to have a no first use policy, a pledge not to use nuclear
weapons unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons, however
India’s former NSAShivshankar
Menon signaled a
significant shift from “no first use” to “no first use against
non-nuclear weapon states” in
a speech on the occasion of Golden Jubilee celebrations of the National Defense College in New Delhi on 21 October 2010, a doctrine Menon
said reflected India’s “strategic culture, with its emphasis on minimal

In May, 1998 following
India’s nuclear tests earlier that month, Pakistan conducted two sets of
nuclear sets, Chagai I and Chagai II. According to the estimate of Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace and
the Stimson Center,
Pakistan has enough fissile material for 350 warheads.5


4Draft Report of National Security Advisory Board on
Indian Nuclear Doctrine. Embassy on India, Washington D.C., 5 December, 2009

Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal could become the world’s third biggest, Tim Craig,
The Washington Post, 27 August, 2015


Since the partition and independence
from the British both states have been fighting with other and have fought
three wars in the period of six decades. Both are always in front on the
borderline and the violations keep happening on the line of control on and off.
Both states have seek independence from the British in the 20th
century as a result of many nationalist and freedom movements. The basis of
partition and creation of a separate land was the difference of religion and
language which had created a feeling of hatred among people and they could not
live peacefully in one state and therefore a separate nation was created
Pakistan.There is a political and military clash between the two all the time
because of the conflict of Kashmir. It is the most heated part and although
it’s a small piece of land but it has great importance for both of the states
and no one is ready to withdraw its ownership and the tension between the two
continues.6This region is
not only important because it has a strategic location but also because it has
become a symbol for both nations.India claims that if it loses the mostly
Muslim region of Kashmir, the 140 million Muslims residing in its country are
also going to demand a separate state.Neither India nor Pakistan wants to lose
this part to each other.The stakes of the conflict have now increased as it’s
not just about the military now but about the nuclear capability of both
states. It seems as if with the passage of time the tensions are increasing and
not decreasing.India has already declared it nuclear power and in 1998 Pakistan
did so too by the experimenting five nuclear bombs. This gave a clear message
to the opponent that: we have the same power to retaliate as you possess.



India and Pakistan n. page Oct 1998.


India keep on blaming the Pakistan
intelligence agency for the attacks and terrorist activities that happen in
India worsening the situation.Exchange of fire and small arms is done on and
off by the massive troops set by both states at their borders. The conflict is a
sensitive issue. It should be monitored all the time by both states and where
required by the International community as well. According to the Natural
Resources Defense Council both states have 50 to 75 weapons.  Pakistan is believed to have about ten more
than India.  The NDRC “estimates their
explosive yields are 5 to 25 kilotons (1 kiloton is equivalent to 1,000 tons of
TNT).  By comparison, the yield of the
weapon the United States exploded over Hiroshima was 15 kilotons, while the
bomb that exploded over Nagasaki was 21 kilotons”6


Over the period of time the NPT has been
seen by many third-world countries as ‘a conspiracy of the nuclear ‘haves’ to
have the nuclear ‘have-nots’ in their place’. The Article 6 of the treaty
‘obligates the nuclear states to liquidate their nuclear stockpiles and pursue
complete nuclear disarmament’ but it can be seen that it has not happened even
after so many years of the implementation of this treaty and even efforts for
doing so are not visible. This is a violation of the Article 6 of NPT. India
criticized this treaty by saying that ‘it discriminates against the states not
possessing nuclear weapons by January 1, 1967’

The Nuclear Non-
Proliferation Treaty is an important document that reduces the chances of a
nuclear war between countries and points towards peace. In some case may be the
proliferation is the solution as they keep two states in conflict from staying
put and not attacking each other.