Abstract: leads to bad crop or crop failure.

Abstract:

The project has been made observing
the farmer as well as the environment in mind. Agriculture is considered as the
basis of life for the human species as it is the main source of food grains and
other raw materials. Over 58 percent of the rural households depend on
agriculture as their principal means of livelihood. There is an exigent need to
solve the problem in the domain to restore vibrancy and put it back on higher
growth. To require portable decisions, farmers need information throughout the
entire farming cycle. Farmers need agricultural information and appropriate
knowledge to make knowledgeable decisions and satisfy informational needs. The
Internet of Things(IOT) and
Remote Sensing (RS) techniques are used in different area of research for
monitoring, collecting and analysis data from remote locations. The goal of
this project is to look at all these problems and to find a solution. The
farmer keeps checking for the water supply in the field. In winters also, he
sleeps in the field in cold nights to look out for animal intrusion. Sometimes,
the soil temperature and humidity are insufficient for a particular crop, but
the farmer does not know that which ultimately leads to bad crop or crop
failure. The paper aims at helping the farmer by providing data such as air
temperature and humidity, soil temperature and moisture, through sensors, which
is sent on the website, through Raspberry Pi is a single board computer which
is based on Broadcom BCM2835
which includes ARM11 Processor, Video
Core IV GPU, 512MB RAM, on which the farmer can
easily establish. The sensors will extract the digital data from soil and air.
This data sent to the website.

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keywords- Internet of Things, Sensors, Remote Sensing.

keywords- Internet
of Things, Sensors, Remote Sensing.

1.     
Introduction:

The goal of this
project is to develop a smart irrigation and focus the area will observe
parameters like humidity, temperature and soil moisture. This scheme will be a
substitute to. We will expand such a system that will assist the farmer to
recognize his ?eld status in his home or he may be
residing in any part of the world. It moves for automatic irrigation system for
the agricultural lands. Currently, the automation is one of the essential roles
in the human life. It not only provides comfort but also energy, e?ciency and time-saving. Promptly the industries are
utilizing automation and control which is high in cost and not suitable for use
in a farm ?eld. Thus, we design a smart irrigation
system in which is usable by farmers. One is to manage the storage that allows
automatic adjustment of fundamental quantity according to the need of material
inside that storehouse. The used sensors indicate the current temperature and
the require temperature for storage according to that it will adjust. Second,
is to Water irrigation that can automatically control and conserve water.
Sensors collecting the data from ?eld and on that basis
which ?eld require the water is analyzed. Irrigation
process is done by the output given by sensors. Is disease control and pest
monitoring including with fertilization. Farmers get information about diseases
and schedule of fertilization. The goals of this project were to control the
water motor automatically, check the plant growth.

Literature
Survey:                                                                                                                                        After the survey in the
agricultural field, we found the agriculture area, and its productivity is
decreasing by the day. With the help of technology in the field, we can expand
the production. Also diminish the manual efforts.

1. Nuno Brito
et al. in 2009:
Presents the design and implementation of a remote
experiment for controlling the level.
of a two-tank system. The system includes two tanks
made in acrylic, a pump to circulate.
the water from the lower to the upper tank, two
ultrasonic sensors for measuring both
tank positions, and to stop the ?ow between the upper
and the lower level tank
and a manual valve for security purposes. The upper tank is being controlled and
the lower tank serves as a bu?er. This system is 4
controlled using an on o? controller and
PID algorithms and monitored by custom developed
LABVIEW program.
2. S. M. Khaled
Reza et.al in 2010:
Developed a web and monitoring service protocol which
and
senses water level globally. Here water level sensors are composed
rod, nozzles.
inducting rubber, etc. The basic operation is, when one
nozzle of the sensor is drawn into
, nozzle and rod connected due to water conductivity.
Thus, it o?ers us to
control this system from any place via internet even
with of devices. He
developed the notion of water level monitoring and management within the
context of
electrical conductivity of the water.
3. Ayob Johari
et.al in 2011:
Presented the development of water level monitoring system with an integration
of GSM
module to alert the person in charge of a hostel
through Short Message Service (SMS).and
analyses that delay in receiving SMS had occurred and it could be due to
detector circuit.
the programming of the PIC and the soldering of the
components connection on the
prototype PCB. There are three sequences of SMS sent to
the person in charge to alert.
the level of the water tank since there are three low
levels of the water in to the tank.

 

2.     
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

a.       Design and Implementation

The block diagram of the smart
agriculture system as shown in Fig. The main components of this diagram are
sensors, Raspberry Pi module, Wi-Fi connection, LDR, relay’s, motor.

Fig: Smart Agriculture
System

 

The raspberry pi is main heart
of the setup. A keyboard and mouse also connected to the raspberry pi. The
raspberry pi is connected to 5V power supply. A soil moisture sensor and a
humidity sensor and water sensor are connected to the system to takes digital
values. The sensor values are stored in the raspberry pi. This value
transmitted to the website.
The data is subsequently transferred to the remote system using serial
communication. The outputs obtained in the form of 0’s
and 1’s. This function can be performed sitting at a
remote location within the range of the network, thereby diminishing human
effort as also making sure that the plants get an ideal growth environment. The
first step is placing the sensors, like for example in case of a moisture detection
sensor, it has to be placed deep inside the soil. The sensor nodes are
connected to the raspberry pi which is responsible for involving a wired
communication among nodes. The processing unit is also linked via raspberry pi
to a display system. There are relays, valves and motors connected to the
system.
SENSORS:

Sensors are the device which
converts the physical parameter into the electric signal. The system which
shown in fig 1 consists of

·Soil
moisture sensor-used to measure the moisture content of the soil.

·Temperature
sensor -used to detect the temperature of the soil.

·water sensor
-used to measure the water level in the water tank.

·Motion
sensor -used to detect presence of animal and human.

·Smoke Sensor
-used to detect the smoke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.      Raspberry Pi:

 The Raspberry
Pi is a small, powerful and lightweight computer which can do many of the
things a desktop PC can do. The powerful graphics capabilities and HDMI video
output make it ideal for multimedia applications like media centers and narrowcasting
solutions. The Raspberry Pi is based on a Broadcom BCM2835 chip. It does not
feature a hard disk or solid-state drive, instead relying on an SD card for
booting and long-term storage. Raspberry Pi may be slower than a modern laptop
or desktop but is still a complete Linux computer and contributes all the
expected abilities, at a low-power consumption level. It is an open hardware
with an exception of Broadcom SoC (System on chip), which runs most of the
components of CPU board, graphics, USB controller, etc. Most of the projects
made with raspberry pi are open and well documented.

Methodology:

The Raspberry Pi board is working
as a co-coordinator node, installed with MOBOXTERM which is a LINUX based
Operating System. A blank SD card is used to load the Operating system. This operating
system is installed on a SD card. After the installing OS are made which
includes partition extension, head/headless mode booting, camera configuration,
system update and upgrade. All the functions are performed in Raspberry Pi
implemented using python programming. Python receives data values from
raspberry pi over serial port through USB interface. All sensors are connected
to Raspberry pi which sense data from the field and give it to the Raspberry pi
kit. Through python programming all data of field is processed and according to
parameters the result is given to respective authority. Mainly two sensors play
major role which are: Moisture sensor, Water sensor.

Moisture sensor is set in field,
for sensing the moisture level of the field. This moisture level value is
compared with the required value, if this value is bellow the required moisture
level then motor is automatically starts for irrigation. For irrigation, water
sensor senses the availability of water in tank, if water is available then
irrigation starts else system send message or notification about unavailability
of water to authority. Furthermore, if moisture level is above or equal to
required level then no requirement of irrigation.     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flow Chart of Automated Irrigation
Methodology:

 

 

 

Conclusion:

      The
sensors are interfaced with raspberry pi and wireless communication is achieved
between various Nodes. This project is a complete solution to field activities,
irrigation problems using raspberry pi. Implementation of such a system in the
field can definitely help to improve crop yield and overall production. The
system developed is beneficial for farmers and another field activity. It
reduces the water consumption for irrigation. The System is solution in areas
where lack of water availability. The productivity of the crop increases and wastage
of water is prevented. The developed system is more helpful and gives more
feasible results with low cost of maintenance.

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

It gives us a great pleasure to
introduce this project on “SMART AGRICULTURE SYSTEM USING RPI” which based on
IOT. The project is made in user friendly language to grasp the service
quickly. Especially we thank to Principal Prof. Dr. B. P. Ronge for allowing
this project. We thankful to our Head of Department Prof. V. D. Jadhav whose
guidance and support were instrumental in accomplish this task. We thankful to
our guide Prof. J. D. Bokefode for encouragement and support. We sincerely
express thank to my group members for their e?orts to make this project as good
as it is. We have jointly made every possible e?ort to
eliminate all the errors in this project. However, if you ?nd any please let us
know, because that will help us improve further. We would like to extend my
sincere thanks to all of them who are supported us directly and indirectly.