This research paper focuses on the role of International media in the proliferation and multiplication of hatred and hostility vibe against Muslims in the American society from the U.S. presidential season, 2016. The objective of this research paper is to focus on the hostility and aggression against Muslims, and how it is utilized to legitimize the segregation towards them. American Muslims have been more likely to be a victim of violence, threats and hatred since start of American presidential campaign. During the first GOP debate in August 2015, Islamophobia made an appearance Islamophobia made an appearance just a month later in September 2017, the first incident of Muslims hatred of anti-Muslim occurred. This paper is focused on the dramatically increased Islamophobia in America. Since 9/11 fear based oppressor exercises by white radical or Christians is a common hone, have slaughtered numbers comparable to those hurt by Muslims. Yet we do not hear any segregation towards Christianity or Christians by and large indeed in most cases they are displayed as solitary wolf, mental case or medicate fiend, American news outlets are also more concerned about non-Muslim victims rather than Muslim victims of terror. The analyst has utilized substance analysis strategy, 30 articles have been chosen on the premise of most quotation and catchphrase pertinence. The analysis of these research papers recommended that threatening vibe towards Muslims is seen as usual and regular practice in the west while White terrorist are considered as the mentally unstable patients.
Keywords: Muslims, Terror incidents, American Media coverage, Lone wolf, Islamophobia, Expressions of Suspicion and Hostility, 9/11, Trump, Election Campaign
For everyone in America and all over the world it was shocking when Donald Trump suggested a ban on Muslims entering the US, but this behavior towards Muslims has remained a common practice throughout American history. In 2016 Donald Trump’s claim that “Islam hates us”. What is alarming about this is that it comes from an orientalist misconception which have never been changed over the last 200 years. The truth is that Islam does not hate America or the West. There are certainly Muslims radical organizations who despise the United States, but they do not hate US because of their religion (Saladin, 2016).
A critical point in the portrayal of negative media depiction of Muslims happened in the post- 9/11 period, Muslims were freely related with terror. There are several TV pictures, serials, talk shows, cartoons, and news coverage, where Muslims are depicted as uncivilized, anti-modern, anti-democratic, and psychological militants, fundamentalists, radicals, aggressors, primitive, and anti-western. Individual violent happenings or any radical incident in Islamic nations is associated to Islam by the western media. The western world possesses major news offices, press unions, movie-making studios, and TV stations, numerous of which are headquartered in other nations around the world. Larger part of them is either run by the Jews or is beneath capable campaign of Jews and Christians who significantly restrict any positive accomplishment on portion of the Muslims (Nurullah, 2010).
Donald Trump, the GOP presidential front-runner during his elections campaign promoted anti-Muslim stance in the wake of Paris attacks, November 2015 rather than calling for peace, harmony and international unity. Donald Trump’s anti-Muslim statements during his elections campaign and television interviews and appearances on international and national networks impacts millions of viewers across US and the globe (Abdelkader, 2016).
The media is connected to religion in the way that it depicts the expression of religion to its given disciples as well as to the individuals out there. It too upgrades the understandings of a specific religion through important insignia of it. As such, the media are the channels through which the standards and message of religion gets seen to the public. In this prepare, the media can play two parts in the representation of religion: to emphatically depict it or delineate it contrarily to the masses. Subsequently, it depends on the editors who select the material to be broadcasted in the media. The beliefs and worldviews of those guardians unequivocally influence the choice of news and occasions. Acts of terrorism committed by people of other faiths are not connected to their devout character. Acc. to the media portrayal, fear mongering in advanced times has ended up the sole trade of Muslims. This wholesome attribution of Muslims as fear mongers has come about in Islamophobia, racial scorn, slaughter, and viciousness (Nacos & Reyna, 2003).
This paper analysis the reasons behind the sharp rise in wrongdoings against Islam and Muslims or those seen to be Muslim in America. The article, in any case, will propose that there are critical changes taking put in U.S. culture which will enlighten the reasons why the surge in wrongdoings coordinated at Muslims in America was harsh, but brief (Kaplan, 2006). Further this paper explores President Trump’s anti-Muslim rhetoric and actions, linking them to the increase in hate toward Muslims during his tenure. His anti-Muslims actions basically served the political purpose maintaining his political support base of white American class and, creating a divide among west and Muslims (Nuruzzaman, 2017).
The Washington Post’s reporting of the November 13, 2015, Paris attack distinguished from the paper’s coverage of the first Ankara assault. In terms of sheer unmistakable quality, coverage of the Paris assault overshadowed coverage of the Ankara assault. The feature conjured the word terror, while the rest of the article described—in distinctive detail—specific scenes of savagery (el-Nawawy, & Elmasry, 2017).
The commonality of orthodox representations correlating Muslims with terror in standard media uncovers broad conviction among the makers of media messages that the affiliation, or association, is typical, sensible, and/or satisfactory, which is at that point suggested to, and learned by, youth, instead believing that, the affiliation is unfair and stereotypical and hurts Muslims, making them defenceless to preference and segregation in the public sphere (Jackson, 2010).
Currently in US, Muslims are regularly depicted as pariahs in settings of national sharing, despite the fact that they are American-born citizens. Islamophobic conversations are based on the view that Islam don’t belong in the West and that Muslim refugees cannot be truly identified with the states in which they live (Shryock, 2013).
The other common narrative is that white Christian extremists who commit terrorist attacks are not terrorists. There are exceptions. The Oklahoma bombing by a white Christian is generally considered to be an act of terrorism, although the attack was initially blamed on Islamic terrorist groups. For the most part, though, “terrorist” was not a word applied to the white Christian responsible for the Quebec City attack. Nor is he alone in avoiding classification as a terrorist (Corbin, 2017).
President Trump’s “America First” narrative is basically the continuation of the Bush’s anti-Muslim stance. It is President Trump’s anti-Muslim rhetoric and actions that have made him look Islamophobic, but he is not only American leader with terrible anti-Muslim mind-sets. His anti-Muslim rhetoric serves his political purpose but at a high cost to the Muslims. Neither did he hide his anti-Muslim sentiments that has created a weird situation in the relationships between the Muslims and Trump’s America (Nuruzzaman).
Even if media do not impart students to relate Muslims with terror, they will, in any case, learn that it is typical to do so, that it is recognized in the standard media as sensible or worthy, rather than as damaging to Muslims, who confront segregation, bias, and hatefulness when the breadth of their substances is not considered newsworthy or engaging, lacking an education that basically reacts to the transcendent generalization. Topical, expository, and basic lessons in media proficiency must complement the formal educational programs approximately Islam to optimize the dynamic mindfulness and basic gathering of what is eventually depicted as typical to think regarding Muslims in the mass media. What specific assets are utilized is not as critical as what is communicated through their consideration: that standard messages are inadequate or biased, and that informed members of an equitable society must hook with numerous viewpoints when it comes to troublesome, disputable subjects to act independently and in an educated way inside society (Jackson).
Conservative leader who openly share their hate for Muslims have escalates negative approaches. For the propagation of Islamophobia, the tremendous majority shares the media is partly guilty. The generalizations that are propagated in the media may not have pernicious expectation, but they are belittling to Muslims and may lead to incognito and unmistakable separation on interpersonal levels (Al-Hamdani, 2016).
Donald Trump’s speeches indicated the rise in hatred towards Muslims in USA. Donald said that Muslims only care for Jihad indicating ISIS, and Muslims hates US. Acc. To Trump, “why does President Obama defend Muslims in America? Oh, I can see that he is one of them, he is a Muslim, right?” From this it is obvious that Trump really hates Muslim and President Obama. By all this he was trying to construct the bad image of Muslim to gain supports form the American society. He builds his own image of a leader for all the Non-Muslims and supporters of Anti Muslims sentiments which especially effected the family of terrorism victims. (Puspitasari, 2016)
The affiliation of Islam with terror has come to be acknowledged as fragment of the discourse on security and terrorism; it will be sufficing to say that “Muslim” and “terrorist” have ended up nearly synonymous (Eid, & Karim, 2011). The narrative “our Lone wolf/ Your terrorists” by Phillips and many others, depicts the relation between civilizing Christians and regressing Islam. (Humphrys, 2012).
Brooks, R. A, claims that Muslim inhabitants or citizens of the US symbolise to a genuine and developing terror threat to American society, especially in their assumed readiness or capacity to execute dangerous assaults in the US. It doesn’t seem that Muslim Americans are progressively influenced or proficient of involving terror assaults against their inhabitants (Brooks, 2011).
This study revealed that of media coverage of such terror incidents are based on the concept of depicting Islam as a culture and religion of violence and fear, while US is a great Christian country. Coverage of terrorism highlights contrast in religion, demonizing Muslims and civilising Christians. Fatalities of terror were characterized as innocent, imploring, Christian, and otherworldly in a few ways, being slaughtered, harmed or frightened by wicked Muslim terrorist. In the US Media coverage assist in creating a sense of triviality of domestic terrorism and highlights devout contrasts that contribute to a ”holy war,” while upgrading a culture of fear of Muslims and Islam (Powell, 2011).
Long-term and short-term revelation to media labelling of Muslims as terrorists increases recognitions of Muslims as destructive, which in turn increments bolster for policies that hurt Muslims locally and globally (Saleem, Prot, Anderson, Lemieux, 2017).
The occasions of 9/11 constrained the media’s hand to cover the Muslim and Arab minorities more regularly. This moreover caused the press to show news consumers with a more inclusive picture of these groups. One consequence was that the news media allowed Muslim-Americans more access after 9/11, and individuals of this minority made themselves accessible to the media (Nacos & Torres-Reyna, 2003).
The augment of Islamophobia in the West has raised concerns among analysts and policymakers. While the standard media and a few political leaders relate Islam with savagery, the reports by noticeable organizations focus upon a common loathe of Muslims. An initial look at the clear figures uncovered that Western citizens hold different approaches of Islamophobic outlooks and these views from a general feeling around Muslims to the discernment of Muslims as compassionate of terrorist organizations (Ciftci, 2012).
Being a victim of such forms of biasness on ordinary basis can prompt character issues. The effort of combining and absorbing two diverse societies can regularly feel like a amusement of tug of war for Muslim Americans Youth (Al-Hamdani)
Trump call for Shutting Down Mosques
In the wake of Paris terrorist attacks Donald Trump called for shutting down the Mosques. “Trump Doubles Down On Closing Mosques: ‘We’re Gonna Have No Choice’ (VIDEO).” Thus resulting in increased in directly attacks on mosques. This surged once again in December, 2015 which resultantly increased the number of attacks on mosques and Islamic schools dramatically as compare to the beginning of presidential campaign. In most cases the suspects were public supporters of presidential candidate Donald Trump. This political rhetoric created fertile ground for hatred and fear against Muslims in US. These attacks on mosques and Islamic institutes sends a strong message all over the world that Muslims are not welcome and not safe in the American society (Abdelkader).
All Terrorists Are Muslims
This biased media depiction implies that Muslims are more inclined towards violence and hatred thus making them a threat to US and other western societies. Hence, it is important to part the general perceptions about Muslims from more specific approaches linking Muslims to aggression and terrorism (Ciftci). Association of Islam with terrorism seems to be accepted as part of the communication on security and terrorism, so much that the words “Muslim” and “terrorist” have become almost identical (Eid & Karim, 2011). This description of all Muslims as one psychological ‘species’, horribly chronological as it is, can at that point be utilized regularly interface Muslim outrage with all the ills of Islam, repeating the same xenophobia this time in pseudo-psychological discussion (Humphrys, 2012). Mass media links Islam and Muslims, with terrorism, depicting the religion and the group most normally as irrational, fundamentalist, and/or inclined to receptive aggression (Jackson).
No White People Are Terrorists
In today’s mass societies individuals are indeed more reliant on the news since they have “nowhere else to turn for information about general affairs and for guidelines on how to perceive and decipher that information” (Neuman, Just & Crigler 1992). A Muslim accountable for aggression that expresses adoration for previous mass shooters and writes “those that allow their God to be mocked have no God” would instantly be branded a terrorist. A white Christian accountable for aggression that expresses adoration for the Charleston attacker and who compose that exceptional sentence, however, is not (Corbin). The Washington Post portrays assault against Western European targets (2015-2016), and assault against Muslim majority communities, differently. In covering assaults on France and Belgium, The Post utilized “terrorism frames” to formulate coverage while constantly humanizing victims and drawing associations between European societies and the Western world more usually. Assaults against Turkey and Nigeria were covered less significantly and were mainly portrayed as domestic clash (el-Nawawy & Elmasry). Accordingly, journalists, editors and producers in the news media make decisions persistently about who, how and what to display in the news; such choices are affected by their organizations’ standard working methods (Nacos & Torres-Reyna, 2003). Major networks in US rarely aired helpful content for Muslims neither externally nor internally. Important issues that consider on the news about Muslims involve residential security, worldwide clashes, and terrorism (Al-Hamdani, Y, 2016).
Subjugation of Muslim Women
In the evolution of chronological Islamophobia to gendered Islamophobia, Juliane Hammer outlined the complications of Islamophobia focussed towards Muslim women in America. She makes the case that gender, as a social develop, is depicted as Muslim men being brutal terrorists and Muslim women being dominated by Muslim men; thus the need for Muslim women to be liberate from their religion and civilization (Ernst, 2013). Instead of the fact that social tradition shifts broadly, numerous non-Muslims have tended to view the role of women as permanent and homogenous, and western societies deliver a set of presumptions and depictions about the Islamic custom of covering for ladies which build it as a representation of backwardness, spiritual fundamentalism, male domination, and terrorism (Watt, 2012).
Discrimination among White Terrorists & Muslim Terrorists
Reporting of terrorist incidents shows a design of media coverage of terrorism in which fear of global terrorism is central, mainly as Muslims=Arabs=Islam functioning mutually in structured terrorist cells in opposition to ”Christian America,” whereas household terrorism is radiate as a slight danger that occurs in confined occurrences by disturbed people (Powell). As Glenn Greenwald wrote in Salon (2011): What it says is what we’ve seen over an over: that Terrorism has no purposeful meaning and, in any case in American political conversations, has come partially to mean: aggression committed by Muslims whom the West loathes, no matter the reason or the objective. Undoubtedly, in many media circles, argument of the Oslo assault rapidly morphed from this is Terrorism (when it was accepted Muslims did it) to no, this isn’t Terrorism, just extremism (once it got to be likely that Muslims didn’t).
Role of Political Leaders
Western citizens see Muslims as obsessive, aggressive and supportive of terrorism because they believe them to be hostile to their physical well-being and social values. This feeling is used by media and right-wing leaders to nourish the xenophobia of a new variety (Ciftci, 2012). The media also reported that pioneers like President Bush and New York’s Mayor Rudi Giuliani advice Americans not to express their rage toward cultural and devout minorities. It appears that these reports did not obliterate the public’s questions regarding Muslim- and Arab-Americans’ patriotism (Nacos, & Torres-Reyna, 2003).
Lack of interest and knowledge regarding Muslims, their culture, norms and values leads to a manipulative Islamophobia. Muslims must be sentient that in the view of Non –Muslims they represent themselves collectively not individually. Media should play a vital role in negating such anti-Muslim propagandas. Balanced news reporting of Muslims, in the US as well as internationally, can decrease the perception that Muslims are supporting terrorism or extremist activities. The Muslim community is diverse in US in many aspects of race, class or creed so associating an individual, as a Muslim on the basis of their appearance is not usually accurate. When society assumes that all Muslims practices same religious practices and convictions, they are making the judgment that fundamentally all the Muslim community is same there no distinction between the individuals of that bunches and all of them are inalienably homogeneous. The generalizations that are circulated in the media may not have hurtful expectation, but they are maligning Muslims picture in the western society and may lead to clandestine and obvious separation on interpersonal levels. Representations in US media of Islam and Muslims barely scratch the surface when it comes to the differing qualities of the community, around the world: in Middle East, in UN, and in other Western and Eastern nations. Thematic, logical, and critical lessons in media education must complement the formal educational programs almost Islam to optimize the dynamic mindfulness and basic gathering of what is eventually depicted as ordinary to think almost Muslims in the mass media.