Aceh, The researchers have not properly evaluated the

Aceh, which located in the northernmost
side of Sumatra Island, is probably one of the most damaged regions that
suffered from the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. Tsunami is considered a deadly
disaster that has occurred many times over the past few decades in multiple
countries all over the world. The movement of reconstruction after the tsunami
is a chance to create a better environment and society, mainly for developing countries,
however the lack of knowledge on how to make a better reconstruction founded
among developer. The caused region has various social and economic which
contain characteristic and modern reconditioning. Several research
opportunities have been conducted because of the Indian Ocean tsunami,
furthermore, the most of the research has focused on housing reconstruction,
livelihoods and the rehabilitations of community and there are only a few researches
on the issue of transportation. The researchers have not properly evaluated the
reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation perspective and have yet to be
discussed and analysed properly. In order to start the evaluation of multiple
aspects of the reconstruction of Aceh in terms of transportation, this research
aims to show three transportation-related issues within the reconstruction process
– 1) the road network in the Banda Aceh coastal area, 2) mobility in relocation
sites, and 3) reconstruction of the Banda Aceh-Meulaboh. This research is also
to make analysis about this problem and counter it by adding the viewpoint of
disaster management and reconstruction. This will execute a preliminary
analysis, such as research papers for instance. Report and data has been
collected from interviews and scouting conducted by authors and such “specific
data” was analysed by the “interpretive approach”, considered a convenient
analytical framework for specific data.

 

Tsunami is a series of ocean waves
typically caused by large undersea earthquakes or volcano eruptions at tectonic
plate boundaries. These surges of water may reach 100 feet and cause widespread
destruction when they crash ashore. Tsunami of December 2004, caused by 9.0
magnitude earthquake, is the most infamous tsunami of modern times with
disastrous consequences in many areas. This tsunami affected more than 18
countries from Southeast Asia to Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000
people in a single day and leaving more than one million homeless. Other than
that, it left several millions of dollars of economic loss affecting fishing
and tourist industries. It is also an environmental and medical threat
including water pollution and flooding and endemic diseases. The tsunami that
struck the coastal area of Banda Aceh measured 6-12 m high and traveled 2 km
inland from the coast, reaching as far as 4 km in some place. Thousands of
buildings were washed away. Urban infrastructure such as roads, electricity,
water supply and telecommunication and public services such as education,
health and public transportation, receive massive damage. The tsunami struck
approximately 30 minute to 1 hour after the earthquake, but many people in
Banda Aceh were unable to escape in time as the city was unprepared for
tsunamis. Addition to the fact that residential areas along the coastline of
Banda Aceh were developed on low lying ground was the primary factor that
amplified the damage.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Over 139,195 houses either totally
destroyed or badly damaged when the tsunami occurred. While in the disaster
recovery process, it was reported about 140,304 units of permanent houses were
rebuilt.  One
of the most effective results of housing reconstruction remains in the
community’s sense of dignity, social understanding, economy and cultural
identity. However, it is challenging to control issues related to land
tenure administration, spatial planning regulation, beneficiaries’ data
collection, infrastructure and housing construction procurement, and community
re-settlement process. The question is, is the village was rebuilt with better village layout, with standardized
road width, good housing arrangement, and adequate open spaces and green areas?
Earlier studies seemed to suggest to be more effective in order to rebuilt the
houses after disaster occurred. To verify this finding, more work is urgently
needed.

This article is structured as the
following. In the First point, the article presents the statistics of the
circumstances of aceh’s tsunami. Secondly, reviewing the disaster between 2004
and 2009.Spatio worldly changes in Land Use Cover (LUC) in Banda Aceh were
accounted for in the vicinity of 2005 and 2009. This examination and a few
accessible reports finished their perceptions amid the rehabilitation and
reconstruction of Aceh and nias (BRR) works that were finished in 2009. After
2009 as of not long ago, the recuperation procedure was hard to screen. This
uncovers negligible consideration paid to the observing of the beach front
(LUC) over a long stretch in the wake of being influenced by the wave. Along
these lines, this examination is viewed as an essential commitment to
distinguish holes in thinks about seeing Aceh as the investigation zone. This
examination is gone for observing the recuperation of seaside arrive use amid
the 10-year recuperation process and at exploring the impact of the recuperation
procedure on group work.

Urban planning process and tsunami
disaster management.

 

After the disaster, the formulation of
urban reconstruction to build that would be safe from tsunamis started immediately.
The villagers of Aceh worked together to rebuild their city because 70 percent
of Banda Aceh destroyed by tsunami. BAPPENAS was placed in charge and
established an outline urban reconstruction plan, called the Blueprint, in
January 2005. The awareness to avoid more loss in the future advised to the
people in Banda Aceh if the tsunami will come again. In the Blueprint, the city
was divided into multiples zones, with the area within 2 km of the shoreline
named Buffer Zone and restricted area for housing. The concept for this zone
was basically followed in the report of Reconstruction Master Plan supported by
JICA and top down approached was taken for this Master plan planning process.
On the other hand, in response to the people’s request for early housing
construction, and in contrast to top down approach, USAID began to support the
formulation of a village plan, in May 2005 through a participatory and
bottom-up method undertaken in parallel with JICA’s master plan formulation
process called a community level reconstruction plan. The opinions of residents
who wished to stay in the same village were respected based on such community agreements;
approval was granted to rebuild residences in coastal areas. Many houses were
rebuilt in the zones designated as restricted areas on the Blueprint and
coastal area that had been flooded by the tsunami. In both the Blueprint and
the Master Plan that followed it, the concept for minimizing damage was to
restrict housing and economic activity in the areas that had been damaged in
the 2004 tsunami, minimizing the number of people in these areas. However,
after the Village Plan was accepted by BRR and housing reconstruction allowed
in the coastal areas, the concept had to be changed from regulating activity
through zoning to ensuring safety through disaster prevention measures. In
addition, as a model project, roads were improved to serve as part of an evacuation
route network, signs were installed, and four-story community buildings to
function as evacuation sites.

 

In conclusion, for the disaster
education, people far from the tsunami place advised must go to temporary place
if the tsunami came near their city. Next, people in Banda Aceh advised to
always watch weather forecast and alert about the disaster warning from meteorological
department. Lastly, the people must know to handle with first aid if injury
occurred and keep the first aid at the place that can remembered and get it
easily.

 

House relocation and mobility.

 

In Banda Aceh, these housing relocation
sites are located at the borderline city areas which not affected by the
tsunami or on the hills nearby Banda Aceh. House relocation processes was
focused on Labuy and Pante Riek. Labuy which is located about 15 km from the
east of Banda Aceh and located on a hill. The journey from Banda Aceh to Pante
Riek may take about 30 minutes and above by car. Some NGOs and donors built the
houses for the victims on land provided by the Indonesia government in Labuy
neighborhood. The victims started to move to their new house in Labuy 2007,3
years after the tragic moment in their life. They were forced to live in the
new neighborhood with different environment than their past lives before the
disaster. In 2007, almost 15 000 people lived in the new neighborhood and the
number might increase to double in upcoming 5 years. As this relocation site is
on a hill which is a bit far from main road, the buses and other public
transportation services could not reach the neighborhood. The residents have to
walk or hire becaks or single-seat motorbikes that are provided by individual
transport services provider in that area. People of Labuy had voice out their
views satisfaction about their new lives at new houses in the interviews which
held in 2008 and 2011. But they were not satisfying enough with the lack of
public transport at their area. Public transportation is very important to the
residents and should be provided as soon as possible to ease their daily lives.
This public transportation issue in Labuy keep rising in the interview
survey till now and makes this important issue remains unsolved. Also the
mobility in the relocation area is insufficient and yet not secured.

Pante Riek is a place in Aceh is where
the relocated lived before the tsunami disaster. It is located along the Aceh
River about 4km from the coastline. 
After the disaster happened, housing complexes has been built by a
Taiwanese NGO, the Tzu Chi Foundation on a land that is provided by the
Indonesian Government. There are about 700 houses that were built on the site,
with each house has a size of 42m2 according to a report produced by
H. Nakazato, O. Murao, K. Sugiyasu. Surveys were conducted in March 2008 and
the result shows that the residents were very happy with their lives at the
relocation site, and did not show any sign of dissatisfaction about the public
transportation of that area. Residents remained happy with their lives but
express that there is not enough public transportation for them to use when
they were surveyed in 2011. Suddenly their needs or views toward the public
transportation had changed over the several years after their relocation. Nevertheless,
the problem of public transportation expressed by the residents is not really a
major issue when it is compared to the exact same problem faced by the
residents at the Labuy relocation site because the Pante Riek site is located
really close to the Banda Aceh city center. Banda Aceh city center has an easy
access to necessary activities and resources. There were no planned public transportation
services that had been provided in 2011 at both the Labuy and Pante Riek
relocation sites. The lack of provision of public transportation services,
especially in the area that were affected by tsunami and in relocation sites in
Banda Aceh is because supplying houses to tsunami victims was made to be the
number one priority in helping them while restoration of physical and social
infrastructure was planned after that. However, the restoration of physical and
social infrastructure could not catch up with the reconstruction of houses,
causing the lack of plan for public transportation. Even though the demands on
public transport such as vehicles and motorcycles are high, the provision of
public transport services is very low to meet their mobility needs. The
government has showed that the restoration or provision of public
transportation services was placed as a lower priority task. This is because
there was no clear information of the restoration of public transportation
services within the area.

The process of reconstructing and
reviving is a very hard thing to do. Even small expenses for transport can hurt
the victims economically. Therefore, the restoration of public transportation
services needs to make as a priority to help the victims in terms of surviving
and saving their money. This is the responsibility of the government, and they
need to have a proper plan to provide the victims public transports that
combine with the plan of reconstruction of houses. The issue is the same issue
that is faced by the tsunami victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. This
example offers a very good lesson for them in terms of making a proper choice
to also consider making the restoration of public transportation a high
priority.

Effects on community recovery and inequality in reconstruction

The authors stated in disaster management
and disaster reconstruction, and from experience, recognize that rebuilding
community life, or returning to the lifestyle enjoyed before to a disaster, is
one of the most crucial issues in community recovery. The delay of the
reconstruction of the road from Calang to Meulaboh causes many issues that give
the disadvantages to the people that want to go to other places. Examples, the
victims find that the hardness to go to the city in order to buy their stuff
such as home requirement, foods, water and others are troublesome to them. In
addition, when recalling that the segment between Calang and Meulaboh was
restored to nearly its original state in two years, it can be said that this contributed
to a recovery disparity between communities as well as feelings of unfairness.
Reconstruction and developing country like Indonesia cannot be done without any
help from other countries such as Japan, United states and others. It is
because the country needs a big amount of money to rebuilt back their state that
had been devastated by the nature. 
Efforts to minimize imbalance in reconstruction are essential because
people’s lives are highly dependent on roads in areas that lack a range of
transportation modes such as roads, railways and mass transit.

Effect on economic revitalization and
loss

The deferral of reproduction chip away at
the area between Banda Aceh and Calang, the harmed street, particularly areas
where street arrangement was to be changed, kept on being utilized after as it
were crisis rebuilding work had been finished. Indeed, even as late as August
2008, more than three and a half years after the catastrophe, there were as yet
a few places along the street where conditions were extremely poor or where
streams must be crossed utilizing vessels. At the point when the creators went
by car from Banda Aceh to Meulaboh in August 2008, it took almost nine hours.
Around then, the street amongst Calang and Meulaboh had just been re-established,
and travel time for that portion was approximately more than two hours. Around
three-fourths of the time required for the whole outing, in this way, was
utilized as a part of covering roughly a large portion of the aggregate
separation. As per the driver who went with the creators, the time required to
travel between Banda Aceh and Meulaboh before the debacle was five to six
hours. Along these lines, it had turned out to be important to spend a whole
day to cover only a large portion of day’s separation. The portion between
Banda Aceh and Calang has higher activity volume than the portion amongst
Calang and Meulaboh1. It took over six years for the whole street to be
opened, more than four a long time after the Calang– Meulaboh portion. This
sort of postponement in recreation kept the street arrange blemished and maybe
added to the stagnation of products circulation, pointedly expanded cargo
costs, what’s more, the loss of different financial open doors. It would thus
be able to be surmised that the deferral enormously influenced the area’s
economy and recuperation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion  

 

 The majority of the research in the past did
not really touch about the reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation
perspective. The main objective of this research is to analyse the transportation-related
issues in the Aceh reconstruction.

Reconstruction of Aceh has been
progressing really well. However, there are some issues that are still the same
as before when only observing from a perspective of transportation. There are
three issues that were discussed. Those issues are “better urban development,”
such as secure a good evacuation routes and providing the victims an
appropriate mobility and “better reconstruction,” such as providing
high-quality public transportation services to them. Incorporating current
research findings that are related to big disasters such as Hurricane Katrina
and Great East Japan Earthquake needs to address the issues related to “better
urban development” so that it will help Aceh and it is very important for in
Aceh right now. Besides that, Aceh is still reconstructing until now and
because of this, the solution for the issue of “better reconstruction” cannot
be applied there.

Therefore, all the knowledge and lessons
that found during this research is expected to be used in reconstruction of other
disasters in the future. We could say that the situation in Aceh has shown us
that an unbalanced distribution of transportation services will lead to inequality
reconstruction and it plays a big role in promoting a well-balanced
reconstruction. This could help every government to make a better decision in
reconstruction and take it more seriously especially in terms of
transportation. This could benefit the victims all around the world.

The authors hope everyone can learn from
the mistakes that they did, thinking that transportation is not really
important in reconstruction after a disaster occurred and also hoping this
research could be of some help in future research on disaster management and
transportation planning.