After reconstruction amendments. Then on July 9,

After the Civil War, the country was in disarray. The country needed to be brought back together. This is where reconstruction comes to play. The reconstruction period of the United States was good and bad. It caused a lot of violence at the time, but was successful and better off for the country in the long run. Successes for reconstruction include the reunification of the Union. The Union was separated for four years and reconstruction brought it back together and restores what we know as the United States. The expansion of the South’s economy was another benefit. The end of the war brought business back to the South and Northern states and foreign countries began to trade with the South again. Southern states were able to sell their crops and goods and make a profit again. The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution officially outlawed slavery in the U.S. It was adopted on December 6, 1865, and it was the first of the three reconstruction amendments. Then on July 9, 1968, the country adopted the 14th amendment which gave citizenship to anyone born in the United States. It overruled the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that held that backs could not be citizens. It prohibited state and local governments from depriving persons life, liberty or property. The Amendment also required each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. Finally, on February 3, 1870, the 15th Amendment was ratified and it gave blacks and all other races the right to vote if they are a citizen of the United States. The Freedmen’s Bureau was another success that aided former slaves by providing food, housing, oversight, education, healthcare, and employment contracts. It was a key agency during reconstruction, helping freed slaves in the South until 1969. The Enforcement Acts of 1870 were criminal codes which protected blacks rights to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws Failures of Reconstruction included the creation of the Klu Klux Klan. The KKK used violence and threats to try and restore white supremacy. Their main targets were Freedman and their allies, sometimes by sending threatening messages, beating them or murdering them. The Klan’s Violence was out of control. Poverty was another failure because it left the South in ruins. The war left people homeless, jobless, and without supplies. Southern farmers lost their land and their slaves which meant no crops, which meant no money or food. This caused most of the Southern population to be trapped n a poverty cycle. The Black Codes was a major flaw during the Reconstruction period. They were basically restrictions on how the blacks could live. Jim Crow Laws in the south were laws that believe in De Jure racial segregation. These laws made white only and black only everything legal. This cause more racism in the country which led to more violence and the rebirth of the KKK. The Civil War Amendments that were added were intended to restructure the United States from a country that was “half slave and half free” to one in which the constitutionally guaranteed “blessings of liberty” would be extended to the entire populace, including the former slaves and their descendants. Reconstruction was supposed to solve the racial issues and rebuild the country; however, it turned out to be a foundation for the long road to civil rights. I do feel that the amendments did their job at fulfilling their promise because it was the start of racial equality. In the North, Reconstruction plans consisted with mostly support for the “new” United States. To the North, slavery was morally wrong and cruel. In later years, however, the North abandoned their support for reconstruction due to the accomplishment of Manifest Destiny, and the warnings of labor strikes. To the South, reconstruction was viewed almost always as negative, so many Southerners did not support it. The newly added laws and restrictions just piled on top of the loss of the war and the devastated economy. I would say that many of the white people in the South had injured “pride” because they lost the war and they felt like the North was ruling their freedom. There were three major plans for Reconstruction. The major players included Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and the Radical Republicans. Lincoln’s plan was to offer the South and all former confederates amenity. His plan also stated that Southern states, if having 10% vote from it citizens, would be reimbursed into the Union and a new constitution written for that state. Lincoln did not want to punish the South, but instead wanted them to rejoin the Union as quickly as possible. Johnson’s plan took up the threads where Lincoln had left off. His plan was similar to Lincoln’s but please Congress and the Radical Republicans more so. His plan was also to grant pardon to ex-confederates. Johnson’s plan, unlike Lincoln’s plan, was more hesitant to provide protection to the newly freedman. The Radicals reconstruction plan was unlike Johnson’s or Lincoln’s plan. Instead of wanting the South to rejoin the Union, the radicals wanted to punish the South instead. Their plan wanted to put into action the Ironclad Oath, were former Confederates would not be allowed to vote. The Radical Republicans also gave more protection to the freedmen than Johnson, and believed that Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plan was too lenient to the South. Reconstruction can be seen as both a success and a failure because although Constitutional Amendments ended slavery and restored the Union, many promised to African Americans were not kept. Successes include the added Amendments, Freedmen’s Bureau, and the economic diversity. Failures include Black Codes, poverty, and taxes, etc.