1. killed on the battlefield. The Sultan

1. Several villages and towns were devastated. Millions of people were massacred and a lot of property was destroyed as a result of the Mongol invasions.

2. People supported the Muslim Sultans whole-heartedly for the fear of Mongols. When the Muslim rulers were defeated and routed the Mongols again and again, people began to honour them as their saviours. It enhanced the despotism of the Sultan.

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3. The Sultan of Delhi organized a very powerful army in order to face the Mongol invaders. It made the government entirely militarist.

4. Muslim rulers introduced several reforms in the sphere of administration, army organization, revenue system etc., for the safety of their people against the Mongols. It enhanced the auto­cratic powers of the rulers.

5. It had become essential for the Sultan to keep his armies engaged in wars because they kept them fighting fit. Hence the Sultan resorted to an ambitious expansionist policy.

6. His schemes brought a splendid change in his character. Now he became a practical ruler.

7. The Sultan got rid of powerful and ambitious rulers. He sent them to the north-west frontier where most of them were killed on the battlefield. The Sultan was afraid of the power and ambitions of Zafar Khan, so he let him die in a conflict against the Mongols and did not send any assistance at the time of need.

8. The vast army of Alauddin became an intractable problem for his successors after his death. They failed to maintain their control over it, hence a struggle ensued in the internal affairs of the Sultanate which ultimately destroyed the entire Khalji empire.