An abstract gives the reader a synopsis of contents in book and or article. In this case an abstract is used to give a brief introduction of the overall study. The abstract allows the author to state the overall purpose of the study, the experimental design, analysis of significant results and brief statement of the discussion, and conclusion (USC Libraries, 2018).
An example a database used to find abstracts is NCBI’S PubMed. PubMed is a database comprised of various biomedical articles, books, and journals. PubMed gives a brief abstract of the study. If the reader would like to learn more about the study PubMed can give the reader a direct link to the full text of the study.
USC University of Southern California. Research guides: Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 3. The Abstract.
http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/abstract (accessed Jan. 27, 2014).
Angela Dowden from the Daily News discusses the nutrition topic of avocado and chips. In the article “When Chips are Better Than Your Essential a Daily Serving of Protein”.
The author Angela Dowden is a free-lance writer who has been writing about nutrition and diet since 1990s. Downden has been writing for popular magazines and pop culture online blogposts. Readers could find Dowden credible because of her career being a nutritionist. The url extension is co.uk. Overall, the credibility for this website to give nutritional facts and advice is not realistic this website’s main topic is talking about celebrity gossip and news.
The article was written in July. There are many ideas and facts that are listed without sources to discuss to back up the information. The content of the article seems to fit into pop-culture fads such as diet trends that are popular among celebrity.
The article talks about studies that have been done to show the nutritional values of potatoes and an avocado, but there are no references to the study, when the study was conducted, and authors. Throughout the article, Dowden uses most of the ideas and the opinions of the dietician Helen Bond. Bond states that chips have a hunger suppressing protein that is not seen in avocado. The author does not go any further to discuss the hunger-suppressing protein the name, and its effects on the body with scholarly sources.
Lastly, looking at the context of the article there are no other articles and/or studies that back up this claim between avocado and chips. There are no current and or historical information on this topic. In order to find out more information on this topic, it may be important to find out more about Helen Bond and her thoughts specifically about this topic.
Dowden, A. When CHIPS are better for you than an avocado! Revealed, the surprising ways to get your essential daily serving of protein. Daily Mail Online July 18, 2017. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4704710/Why-french-fries-BETTER-avocado.html
(accessed Jan. 27, 2017)
Colorectal Cancer and Aspirin
Colorectal Cancer is considered to be the most common cause of malignant tumor related death in men and women in the United States (Williams et. al, 2016). Among the ethnic groups in the United States; African Americans have the highest reported death rates and the lowest survival rates for Colorectal Cancer (Williams et. al, 2016). It is recommended that people at risk undergo screening beginning at the age of 50 (Williams et. al, 2016).
In particular African American men have 20-25% higher incidence rate of colorectal cancer than white men. African American women show a 30& higher rate incident rare in comparison to white women (Williams et. al, 2016). In order to combat, the rise of colorectal cancer it was found that Aspirin can be used as a chemo -preventative agent (Albeniz & Chanz, 2012). Albeniz and Chan discuss that “regular aspirin use was associated with a 28% reduction in the rise of Colorectal Cancer (Albeniz & Chanz, 2012). The optimal dosage for aspirin for those at risk with colorectal cancer is 75mg/day (Albeniz & Chanz, 2012). In the study by Ying et al.it is discussed that metastasis of the malignant tumor occurs in the liver and there has been growing evidence that aspirin may help with inhibiting liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. Although studies show that aspirin may help with decreasing metastasis, there is little know about Aspirin’s mechanism of action as anti- cancer agent (Ying et. al, 2018). In the study, researchers studied Lipopolysaccharide and is role in the development of metastasis in the liver (Ying et.al, 2018). It was found that using Aspirin in the mouse model inhibited the metastasis by down regulating the pathway (Ying et. al, 2018). In the conclusion of their study, they found that the aspirin may play a role as an inhibitor for Lipopolysaccharide induced metastasis of colorectal cancer (Ying et. al, 2018). Although the evidence is promising, there still needs to be more research to understand the mechanism of action between aspirin and metastasis tumors in colorectal cancer.
Figure 1. Chemical Structure of Aspirin (Benzoic acid, 2- (acetyloxy)-)
Melting Point (Experimental)
Garcia-Albeniz X, Chan AT. Best practice & research Clinical gastroenterology. 2011;25(0):461-472. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2011.10.015.
(accessed Jan. 27, 2018)
National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=2244, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2244 (accessed Jan. 29, 2018).
Williams R, White P, Nieto J, Vieira D, Francois F, Hamilton F. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. 2016;7(7):e185-. doi:10.1038/ctg.2016.36.
(accessed Jan. 27, 2018)
Ying J, Zhou H, Liu P, You Q, Kuang F, Shen Y, Hu Z. Cell & Bioscience. 2018; 8: 1. doi:10.1186/s13578-017-0198-7.
(accessed Jan 27, 2018)
Health Disparities among African American Women and Fibroids
An article, “Comparison of Characteristics of Fibroids in African American and White Women Undergoing Pre-Menopausal Hysterectomy by Moorman et. al discusses the epidemiological risk factors among African American women and White women.
Uterine fibroids are prevalent among women in the United States. Uterine fibroids are having a high prevalence among African American women than white women (Moorman et. al.). Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure used to identify, diagnosis, and remove uterine fibroids. The purpose of this study is to understand and compare epidemiological risk factors of uterine fibroids among African American women.
The experimental design of this study is cross-sectional analysis of women go through a pre-menopausal hysterectomy. In the study, there were 225 African American women and 135 white women who participated in the study. The medical history of these women was used to understand and create linear regression models of uterine weight, severity of fibroids, and the size of the fibroid.
Uterine fibroids and uterine weight were higher among African American women than White women. Although risk factors are high among African American women there was no association of having larger uteri or a variety of fibroids. With use of linear regression models the only factors that deemed statistically significant are associated with uterine weight, large fibroids
Hysterectomy is one of the most common procedures for women in the United States (Moorman et. al, 2013). A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure used to remove uterine fibroids. Previous studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of fibroids among African American women in comparison to White women. Moormon et. al discusses that there are higher uterine weights among African American women with fibroids, but there are no studies that link this finding to race (Mormoon et. al, 2018). The purpose of this study is to understand and compare uterine weight, fibroid size and the number of fibroids in African American and white women (Moorman et. al, 2016).
A total of 360 women participated in this study. There was a total of 225 African American women and 135 White women. Women undergoing pre-menopausal hysterectomy between 2004 and 2007 at two hospitals in North Carolina participated in the study after receiving physical consent. Women who were eligible for the study were ages 30 to 47 years, pre-menopausal, and had no history of cancer (Moorman et. al., 2016).
Women signed consent forms and then were administered a questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaire asked about medical history, family history of gynecological conditions, and certain lifestyle habits such as alcohol and smoking (Moorman et. al, 2018). Medical records of the participants shared details in pre-and post-operative diagnose. Uterine weight, number of fibroids, size of fibroids, and location of fibroids (Moorman et. al, 2018). Among the women researchers designed the control to be women with intact uteri.
In order to assess how many fibroids among women; the value of 5 was assigned to a uterus having several fibroids and a value of 10 was assigned to participants having multiple or numerous fibroids.
Among African American versus white women had uterine weight of 17% (447 grams) to 4.8 % (267 grams). Uterine size in African American was 9.9 grams and the number of fibroids in white was 4.5. In the study African, American women are more than likely to have fibroids in multiple locations. Although there were clear differences in size and number of fibroids among African American women it was not significant for researchers to draw full conclusions. Researchers saw that the more pregnancies the smaller the uteri and fewer and smaller fibroids. Women with fewer pregnancies have larger fibroids and have difficulty becoming pregnant. Although the study recognized the difference in fibroid weight and severity; the high prevalence of African American women is not clearly understood. Researchers aim to explore genetic and environmental risk factors of African America Women pertaining to fibroid (Moorman et. al, 2018).
Moorman, P. G., Leppert, P., Myers, E. R., & Wang, F. Fertility and Sterility 2013, 99(3), 768–776.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.10.039
(accessed Jan 27, 2018).