Background- with lung cancer are at more risk

Background- According, to Cancer Research, (2014) it
identifies that there were about 46,403 cases of lung cancer in the UK with a
death rate of over 35,895 in 2014, that’s roughly around 130 cases diagnosed
every day, lung cancer is the most common cancer in the UK during the 2014. In
males in the UK cancer is the second most common cancer with around 24, 800
cases diagnosed in 2014.  However, lung
cancer in England is more common in people living in the most deprived areas
and more common in white people than in black or Asian people. Public Health
England (2015) explains that smoking is twice as common in people with
longstanding mental health problems individuals who are diagnosed with lung
cancer are at more risk of unhealthy behaviours this is because the research
states that two -thirds before the age of 18 start smoking, also the reasons
they start are from peer pressure to behavioural problems.  


According to Tonnes and Greens, (2015) states that Maslow’s
theory (1954) of motivation study explains that smokers with lung
cancer have several of psychological problems which are covered under the
theory it continues to explore that smokers with lung cancer have high symptoms
of burden, poorer diagnosis and stigmatisation, factors such as increased
psychological distress and negatively impact quality of life, with links to
smoking behaviours and beliefs that contribute to depressive or anxious affect.
Due to the risk of breathing difficulties, smokers can be anxiety frustrating which
can contribute to psychological distress and emotional distress for the health
related and quality of life. Earle, (2007) argues that Seedhouse theory
(1988) shows the ethical side of the individual behaviour for instance a
smoker likeness on ethical decisions of smoking and continuing to smoke,
smokers with lung cancer have the autonomy to make decision about their
treatment, access information they need about all factors influencing their
health by accessing smoking cessation programs about quitting, screening also
support counselling services to empower the smokers with lung cancer to quit
and allowing the smokers to gain skills and confidence to be able to get the
information about screening and how to cope with lung cancer after and before
the screening. 

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Moreover, referring to Tonnes and Wills, (2015) studies discuss
that Doyal and Gough, (1991) theory explain the individual themselves have
control over their potential interest such as some smoker’s preference might
vary to another this could be that a smoker need a cigarette to come out from
the mood they if an example can be that they feel stressed or have any other
health needs that makes them feel anxiety and by smoking they might feel better
as well as want to quit smoking. Continuing to discuss both Doyal and Gough
1991 would explain that the its harmful risk to smoking as well as the smoker
feel that they are fulfilled to a goal they wanted to achieve and feel relaxed
once they had a cigarette, however smoker is need of help to reconsider the
gaol they want to achieve this can be the outcomes of quitting and the positive
factors that the smoker will gain once they’ve quitted. For long term smokers,
it might be a difficult issue but with all the help and support from services
and smoking interventions the smoker will be able to consider an alternative
gaol and a long-time achievement.

the Health Needs

Ewles and Sinmnett, (2010) demonstrates that Bradshaw Taxonomy (1972) theory identify
that long-term smokers might feel that they want to have lung cancer screening
done at an earlier stage but do as well continue to smoke, the individual felt
need may be restricted for example to their awareness and knowledge about the
signs and symptoms of lung cancer. Whereas, expressed need is what the
individual say they need for example smokers that feel they need to have
screening then into turn it into a demand need for instance the screening.
However not all the felt need of a smoke can turn into expressed need or a
demand, this could be due to the lack of opportunity which may create conflict
with the health professional. 
Nevertheless, the normative need could be that the smoker needs are not
met, the professionals must offer counselling to the smoker who may be
experiencing stress and depression problem, but resources might not be
available for the type of health promoting services. Additionally, comparative
need is where the smoker who has lung cancer have similar needs to those
receiving help but do not services at an early stage of when they have signs of
lung cancer such as difficulty in breathing or coughing blood seek help as
soon, unless it gets a later stage.

To quote from Naidoo and Wills, (2010) they both expresses
the concern of Dahlgren and whitehead (1991) the inner layer suggest that
health is partly determinate by smoker’s lifestyle factors such as patterns of
smoking, the downstream determinants of health is the actions of the individual
who smoke and the community they live in for example in low and deprived social
economics areas which is the behaviour and lifestyle many chose to smoke.
Moreover, the next layer focuses on working and living conditions for a smoker
if they are unemployed they are at risk of many smoking related illness such as
lung cancer, whereas the area they live can become a barrier for them to access
services as they might live in rural places, lack of services and no smoking
cessation programs for the smokers about the risk of lung cancer or help about quitting.  The outer layer highlights such as the
socio-economics for smoker’s low social class unable to access quick treatment
and wait for treatment and screening, living in cultural some cultural see
smoking as normal behaviour and brave and powerful and environment forces such
as economic development shifts in welfare systems might not provide all the
support and help for smokers who are willing to smoke lack of financial help
for the professionals to help the smokers, political change can be a negative
impact on the smokers might not receive awareness less campaigns advising the
risk and less resources out there for smokers about quitting.

Part two: A Strategy to
Address the Health Needs (1920)

Aims and
objectives –

Aim: The aim for the health
need activity is to raise awareness and educate men aged 25-55 about the health
effects of what causes lung cancer such as the effects of smoking.

Obj 1- Educational:  Increasing levels of knowledge for over 87% of men aged 25-55
who are unemployed and living in deprived low social economics areas of the
health risks of lung cancer caused by smoking from November 2017 till November

Obj 2- Behavioural Change: Increasing the percent by
25 % of men who smoke to uptake services to access for help, support which
could be done through counselling awareness is to reach brief intervention for
smoking cessation the individuals who are willing and targeted to want to
change the outcome for this is 12 months from today.