(b) glycolysis (c) HMS-pathway (d) Krebs cycle. Answer

(b) glycolysis

(c) HMS-pathway

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(d) Krebs cycle.

Answer and Explanation:

1. (b): Glycolysis is the biochemical change in which one molecule of glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid with the involvement of ten enzymes. It is independent of oxygen and is common to both aerobic and anaerobic condition. It takes place in cytoplasm and all the reactions are reversible.

All the intermediates of glycolysis are not converted into pyruvic acid. Some of them build back the carbohydrates and the phenomenon is called as oxidative anabolism. TCA cycle and Krebs cycle are synonym where the pyruvic acid of glycolysis is utilized to form CO2. HMS is hexose monophosphate shunt or pentose phospate pathway which is an alternative pathway of glycolysis.

2. NADP+ is reduced to NADPH is

(a) HMP

(b) Calvin Cycle

(c) Glycolysis

(d) EMP. (1988)

Answer and Explanation:

2. (a): HMP pathway generates NADPH molecule which are used as reductants in biosynthetic process under conditions when NADPH molecules are not generated by photosynthesis. It is, therefore, important in non- photosynthetic tissues such as in differentiating tissues, generating seeds and during periods of darkness. Production of NADPH is not linked to ATP generation in pentose phosphate pathway.

3. R.Q. is

(a) C/N

(b) N/C

(c) CO2/O2

(d) O2/CO2.


(c) CO2/O2

4. End product of glycolysis is

(a) acetyl CoA

(b) pyruvic acid

(c) glucose I-phosphate

(d) fructose I-phosphate.

Answer and Explanation:

4. (b): In glycolytic cycle, each molecule of glucose (a hexose sugar) is broken down in step wise biochemical reactions under enzymatic control into two molecules of pyruvic acids. It takes place is cytosol.

5. R.Q- is ratio of

(a) CO2 produced to substrate consumed

(b) CO2 produced to O2 consumed

(c) oxygen consumed to water produced

(d) oxygen consumed to CO2 produced.


(b) CO2 produced to O2 consumed

6. EMP can produce a total of

(a) 6 ATP

(b) 8 ATP

(c) 24 ATP

(d) 38 ATP.

Answer and Explanation:

6. (b): Glycolysis is also known as EMP pathway after the names of its discoverers. Embden, Meyerhof and Paranas. In glycolysis, 8ATP are produced. 4ATP are formed from substrate level phosphorylation, out of which 2ATP are used up and net gain of 2 AT P. 6ATP are produced from oxidative phosphorylation. Hence, Total ATP produced in glycolysis is 8ATP.

7. Connecting link between glycolysis and Krebs cycle before pyruvate entering Krebs cycle is changed to

(a) oxaloacetate

(b) PEP

(c) pyruvate

(d) acetyl CoA.

Answer and Explanation:

7. (d): End product of glycolysis is pyruvic acid which is converted into acetyl coA before entering into the Krebs cycle, which is aerobic in nature.

8. Terminal cytochrome of respiratory chain which donates electrons to oxygen is

(a) Cyt. b

(b) Cyt. c

(c) Cyt. A1

(d) Cyt. a3.

Answer and Explanation:

8. (d): Cytochrome a3 helps in transfer of electron to oxygen. The oxygen has great affinity to accept the electrons and in presence of protons a water molecule is formed (figure).

9. Out of 36 ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule during respiration

(a) 2 are produced outside glycolysis and 34 during respiratory chain

(b) 2 are produced outside mitochondria and 34 inside mitochondria

(c) 2 during glycolysis and 34 during Krebs cycle

(d) All are formed inside mitochondria.

Answer and Explanation:

9. (b): During respiration, 36 ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule. 2 molecules of ATP are produced outside mitochondria i.e. during glycolysis and other 34 molecules of ATP are produced inside mitochondria from Krebs cycle.

10. Link between glycolysis, Krebs cycle and P-oxidation of fatty acid or carbohydrate and fat metabolism is

(a) oxaloacetic acid

(b) succinic acid

(c) citric acid

(d) acetyl CoA.

Answer and Explanation:

10. (d): Krebs cycle is intimately related with fat metabolism. Dihydroxy acetone phosphate produced in glycolysis may be ‘converted into glycerol via glycerol – 3 – phosphate and vice-versa. Glycerol is important constituents of fats. After P-oxidation, fatty acids give rise to active – 2 – C units, the acetyl-CoA which may enter the Krebs cycle. Thus, Acetyl-CoA is a link between glycolysis, Krebs cycle and P- oxidation of fatty acid or carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

11. End products of aerobic respiration are

(a) sugar and oxygen

(b) water and energy

(c) carbon dioxide, water and energy

(d) carbon dioxide and energy.

Answer and Explanation:

11. (c): The food substances in living cells are oxidised in presence of oxygen, it is called aerobic respiration. Complete oxidation of food matter (1 .mole of glucose) occurs releasing 686 Kcal of energy. The ends of products formed are CO2 and H2O.

12. At a temperature above 35°C

(a) rate of photosynthesis will decline earlier than that of respiration

(b) rate of respiration will decline earlier than that of photosynthesis

(c) there is no fixed pattern

(d) both decline simultaneously.

Answer and Explanation:

12. (a): The plants can perform photosynthesis on a range of temperature, while some cryophytes can do photosynthesis at 35°C. Usually the plants can perform photosynthesis between 10°C – 40°C. The optimum temperature ranges between 25°C – 30°C. At high temperature the enzymes are denatured and hence the photosynthetic rate declines.

13. Oxidative phosphorylation is production of

(a) ATP in photosynthesis

(b) NADPH in photosynthesis

(c) ATP in respiration

(d) NADH in respiration.

Answer and Explanation:

13. (c): In electron transport system the hydrogen donated by succinate is accepted by FAD which is reduced to FADH2. This hydrogen dissociates into electrons and protons and then passes through a series of carriers involving the phenomenon of oxidation and reduction. During this flow, ATP synthesis occurs at different steps and the phenomenon is called as oxidative phosphorylation.

15. Apparatus to measure rate of respiration and R.Q. is

(a) auxanometer

(b) potometer

(c) respirometer

(d) manometer.

Answer and Explanation:

15. (c): Respirometer is an instrument used for measuring R.Q and rate of respiration. The apparatus consists of a graduated tube attached at right angles to a bulbous respiratory chamber in its upper end. Desired plant material who’s R.Q is to be determined is placed in the respiratory chamber.

16. End product of citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle is

(a) citric acid

(b) lactic acid

(c) pyruvic acid

(d) CO2 + H2O.

Answer and Explanation:

16. (d): The end product of glycolysis is pyruvic acid whereas acetyl CoA is the connecting link between glycolysis and Krebs cycle. The TCA cycle was first described by Krebs, 1937 as a cyclic process in which acetyl coA is oxidised to C02 and water. Acetyl CoA combines with oxalo acetic acid to form citric acid. After a series of cyclic reactions OAA is recycled back.

17. Out of 38 ATP molecules produced per glucose, 32 ATP molecules are formed from NADH/FADH2 in

(a) respiratory chain

(b) Krebs cycle

(c) oxidative decarboxylation

(d) EMP.

Answer and Explanation:

17. (a): During respiratory chain, complete degradation of one glucose molecule produced 38 ATP molecules. NAD and FAD is reduced to NADH/FADH2.

18. Life without air would be

(a) reductional

(b) free from oxidative damage

(c) impossible

(d) anaerobic.

Answer and Explanation:

18. (d): Anaerobic respiration (absence of oxygen) takes place in anaerobic bacteria and in plant seeds. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the organism which can live without oxygen. In this respiration, only glycolysis takes place due to the absence of oxygen.

19. The First phase in the breakdown of glucose, in animal cell, is

(a) fermentation

(b) Krebs cycle

(c) glycolysis

(d) E.T.S.


(c) glycolysis

20. When yeast ferments glucose, the products obtained are

(a) ethanol and CO2

(b) methanol and CO2

(c) ethanol and water

(d) water and CO2.


(a) ethanol and CO2

21. The ultimate respiratory substrate, yielding maximum number of ATP molecules, is

(a) glycogen

(b) ketogenic amino acid

(c) glucose

(d) amylose.

Answer and Explanation:

21. (c): Glucose is the chief respiratory substrate which fields maximum number of ATP molecules. Glucose is the most common substate in glycolysis. Any other carbohydrate is first converted into glucose. During glycolysis it changes to pyruvic acid and net gain is of 2 ATP and 2 NADH2 molecules. And later on during Krebs cycle 30 molecules of ATP are produced. So a total of 38 ATP molecules are produced from 1 mol of glucose during aerobic respiration.

22. Poisons like cyanide inhibit Na+ efflux and K+ influx during cellular transport. This inhibitory effect is reversed by an injection of ATP. This demonstrates that

(a) ATP is the carrier protein in the transport system

(b) energy for Na+-K+ exchange pump comes from ATP

(c) ATP is hydrolysed by ATPase to release energy

(d) Na+-K+ exchange pump operates in the cell.

Answer and Explanation:

22. (b): Active transport is uphill movement of materials across the membrane where the solute particles move against their chemical concentration or electrochemical gradient. Hence the transport requires energy in the form of ATP. Metabolic inhibitors like cyanide inhibit absorption of solutes by lowering the rate of respiration. Consequently less ATP are formed. However, by adding ATP, active transport is facilitated.

It occurs in plants as in climacteric fruits and under cold stress. ATP synthesis does not occur. Reducing power present in reduced coenzymes is oxidised to producc heat energy. Therefore, the heat liberation pathway of terminal oxidation is cyanide resistant.

In normal aerobic respiration, the effect of cyanide poisoning can be minimised by immediate supply of ATP.

23. When one molecule of ATP is disintegrated, what amount of energy is liberated?

(a) 8 kcal

(b) 38 kcal

(c) 7 kcal

(d) 4.5 kcal.

Answer and Explanation:

23. (c): ATP is adenosine triphosphate. It was discovered by Lohmann in 1929. It consists of a purine, adenine, a pentose sugar (ribose) and a row of three phosphates out of which the last two are attached by high energy bonds. The last phosphate bond yields an energy equivalent of 7 kcal.

However the latest concept holds that an energy equivalent of 8.15 kcal per mole is released.

24. At the end of glycolysis, six carbon compounds ultimately changes into

(a) ethyl alcohol

(b) acetyl Co-A

(c) pyruvic acid

(d) ATP.

Answer and Explanation:

24. (c): Glycolysis or EMP pathway is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid through a series of enzyme mediated reaction releasing energy. Pyruvic acid is a 3-carbon compound. In glycolysis net gain of 2ATP and 2 NADH2 molecules occurs. It can be represented in equation form as –

C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD


25. Which of the following products are obtained by anaerobic respiration from yeast?

(a) beer and wine

(b) alcohols

(c) CO2

(d) all of these.

Answer and Explanation:

25. (d): In the absence of O2, fermentation or anaerobic respiration occurs. The cells of yeast contain zymase complex enzyme that are capable of fermentation. It is completed in cytoplasm. In this process pyruvic acid forms ethyl alcohol and CO2.

Brewing is the name given to the combined process of preparing beverages from infusions of grains that have undergone sprouting (malting) and the fermenting of the sugary solution by yeast, whereby a portion of the carbohydrate is changed to alcohol and carbondioxide various types of beer, whisky and wine are produced. Wine is the product made by normal fermentation of the juice of ripe grapes (Vitis vinifero) using a pure culture of yeast.

26. The end products of fermentation are

(a) O2 and C2H5OH

(b) CO2 and acetaldehyde

(c) CO2 and O2

(d) CO2 and C2H5OH.

Answer and Explanation:

26. (d): Fermentation or anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of 02. It involves breakdown of organic substance particularly carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions to form ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. It can be represented in equation form as

C6H12O6 2CH3 CH2OH + 2CO2

27. In Krebs’ cycle, the FAD precipitates as electron acceptor during the conversion of

(a) fumaric acid to malic acid

(b) succinic acid to fumaric acid

(c) succinyl CoA to succinic acid

(d) a-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA.


(b) succinic acid to fumaric acid

28. Which of the following is the key intermediate compound linking glycolysis to the Krebs’ cycle?

(a) malic acid

(b) acetyl CoA

(c) NADH

(d) ATP.

Answer and Explanation:

28. (b): During glycolysis pyruvic acid is produced from glucose and is oxidatively decarboxylated to form acetyl CoA. This formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvic acid needs a multienzyme complex and 5 essential cofactors, i.e. lipoic acid, CoA, Mg2+, NAD and TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate).

It results in production of 2 molecules of CO2 and 2 molecules of NADH2. This acetyl CoA enters mitochondria and is completely oxidised during Kreb’s cycle. Thus acetyl CoA acts as the linker of glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle.

29. Net gain of ATP molecules, during aerobic respiration, is

(a) 40 molecules

(b) 48 molecules

(c) 36 molecules

(d) 38 molecules.


(c) 36 molecules

30. Organisms which obtain energy by the oxidation of reduced inorganic compounds are called

(a) photoautotrophs

(b) chemoautotrophs

(c) saprozoic

(d) coproheterotrophs.

Answer and Explanation:

30. (b): Chemoautotrophs are organisms that are capable of manufacturing their organic food utilizing chemical energy released in oxidation of some inorganic substances. The process of manufacture of food in such organisms is called chemosynthesis. It includes some acrobic bacteria. Photoautotrophs obtain energy for their synthesis of food from light.

Fungi living on dead or decaying plant or animal remains and also growing on dung of herbivores are saprophytes.

31. How many ATP molecules are produced by aerobic oxidation of one molecule of glucose?

(a) 2

(b) 4

(c) 38

(d) 34.

Answer and Explanation:

31. (c): Refer answer 29

32. In which one of the following do the two names refer to one and the same thing?

(a) Krebs cycle and Calvin cycle

(b) tricarboxylic acid cycle and citric acid cycle

(c) citric acid cycle and Calvin cycle

(d) tricarboxylic acid cycle and urea cycle

Answer and Explanation:

32. (b): The reactions of Krebs cycle were worked out by Sir Hans Kreb, hence the name Krebs cycle. It involves many 3-C compounds such as citric acid, cis-aconitic acid and iso-citric acid etc. so it is called TCA cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle. It involves formation of citric acid as its first product so it is called citric acid cycle. It involves production of 24 ATP molecules.

33. In alcohol fermentation

(a) triose phosphate is the electron donor while acetaldehyde is the electron accept

(b) triose phosphate is the electron donor while pyruvic acid is the electron acceptor

(c) there is no electron donor

(d) oxygen is the electron acceptor


(a) triose phosphate is the electron donor while acetaldehyde is the electron accept

34. In glycolysis, during oxidation electrons are removed by

(a) ATP

(b) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

(c) NAD+

(d) molecular oxygen.

Answer and Explanation:

34. (c): During glycolysis NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) removes electrons from 1, 3- diphosphoglyceric acid using diphosphoglycrealdehyde dehydrogenase. NAD changes to NADH2 and this is either utilized as such in anaerobic respiration or in the presence of oxygen.

35. During which stage in the complete oxidation of glucose are the greatest number of ATP molecules formed from ADP?

(a) glycolysis

(b) Kreb’s cycle

(c) conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA

(d) electron transport chain.

Answer and Explanation:

35. (d): The last step of aerobic respiration is the oxidation of reduced coenzymes, i.e., NADH2 and FADH2 by molecular oxygen through FAD, ubiquinone, cyt. f, cyt. c, Cyt c,, Cyt. a and cyt. ay By oxidation of 1 molecule of NADH,, 3ATP molecules are produced and by oxidation of 1 molecule of FADH2 2 ATP molecules are produced.

In glycolysis 2 ATP molecules are produced from ADP. Further 2NADH2 produced, give 2?3=6 ATP, on oxidative phosphorylation. Similarly in Kreb’s cycle 2 ATP molecules are produced. So the greatest numbers of ATP molecules are produced in the electron transport chain.

36. How many ATP molecules could maximally be generated from one molecule of glucose, if the complete oxidation of one mole of glucose to C02 and H20 yields 686 kcal and the useful chemical energy available in the high energy phosphate bond of one mole of ATP is 12 kcal?

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 30

(d) 57.

Answer and Explanation:

36. (d): One mole of ATP liberates 12 kcal of energy. So 686 kcal will be liberated by 686/12 = 57.1 ATP molecules.

37. All enzymes of TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrial matrix except one which is located in inner mitochondrial membranes in eukaryotes and in cytosol in prokaryotes. This enzyme is

(a) isocitrate dehydrogenase

(b) malate dehydrogenase

(c) succinate dehydrogenase

(d) lactate dehydrogenase.

Answer and Explanation:

37. (c): Mitochondrion is the organelle which bears various enzymes participating in Krebs cycle. Each mitochondrion is covered by double membrane. The inner membrane is selectively permeable and forms foldings called cristae. The inner membrane bears oxysomes, enzymes of fatty acids, succinate dehydrogenase (of Krebs cycle) and electron transport system. All other enzymes of Krebs cycle are present in the mitochondrial matrix.

38. The overall goal of glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the electron transport system is the formation of

(a) ATP in one large oxidation reaction

(b) sugars

(c) nucleic acids

(d) ATP in small stepwise units.

Answer and Explanation:

38. (d): Respiration is an energy liberating enzymatically controlled multistep catabolic process of step wise breakdown of organic substances (hexose sugar) inside the living cells. Aerobic respiration includes the 3 major process, glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electrons transport chain. The substrate is completely broken down to form CO2 and water. A large amount of energy is released stepwise in the form of ATP.