Birth will learn to walk through this stage

Birth – 18 months

Emotional and social

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A new born baby is very dependent on its parents/guardian
as it is not yet able to fend for itself. Between the age of birth and eighteen
months old is a crucial time for developing. When a child is born they form an
attachment to their mother or father very quickly. Depending on whom their main
career is a child will pick up on their primary socialisation from a very young
age. Children of this age are very good at showing emotions. For example,
children will cry when they are in need of food, changing, feeling pain or
attention. Children at this age can also have separation anxiety, when they are
taken away from a primary socialisation setting. This can cause a child to
become destressed as they are not with people they are familiar with. Children
of this age need a lot of nourishing emotional care, this helps to build the
foundations for future relationships and secure attachments. (Birth to 18
months – Parents Partner Parenting Advice & Workshops for Parents, Teachers
& Couples. 2018.)


Between these stages, a new born baby isn’t able to hold
itself physically at all and is dependent on someone all the time. During this
stage, a child will progress with development at a fast pace. A child will
learn to walk through this stage but will only be able to do so with
encouragement and support throughout. This stage is also crucial for parents as
their child will need reassurance while learning. The child will also learn
some hand to eye coordination and be able to hold things like a juice bottle or
a spoon to help feed themselves. Although they are not extremely indepenant
yet, they are learning more and more to make that jump.


At this stage, children communicate using different
sounds, children will cry when hunger or needs changed, laugh when showing
happy emotions or scream when in pain. Parents will start to recognise these
different sounds very quickly and pick up on what their child needs almost
immediately. Until a child can verbally talk, it is sometimes hard to
understand what they need. This is why it is a crucial time for parents as
they, as the child’s main career can pick up on these sounds and respond
appropriately. (Milestones at 18 Months Old. 2018)

Early Childhood


Young children learn and develop through their early
experiences and relationships. As children get older they begin to develop a
sense of who they are and where they belong. For example, when children develop
positive relationships with other children and educators, it helps them feel like
they belong. This early learning about themselves and others lays the
foundation for their future health and wellbeing. Early childhood is also the
time when children first become aware of differences among people and start to
form opinions and attitudes about these differences (e.g., understanding the
difference between a family member and a stranger or knowing the difference
between males and females). This awareness also means young children are
sensitive to experiences of racism and prejudice. This can impact on their
social and emotional wellbeing, their learning and their social relationships.(
on Early Childhood Development. 2018)


As young children leave toddlerhood behind, they also
begin to mature in their ability to interact with others socially. Social
development involves learning the values, knowledge and skills that enable
children to relate to others effectively and to contribute in positive ways to
family, school and the community. This kind of learning is passed on to
children directly by those who care for and teach them, as well as indirectly
through social relationships within the family or with friends, and through
children’s participation in the culture around them. Children’s
ability to understand others and take their needs and views into account
develops over time. Young children are naturally self-focussed. They often play
beside, rather than with, other children and tend to think that everyone sees
things the same way that they do.( KidsMatter. 2018)


A child of this age is able to dress and undress
themselves without help from an adult. This shows that the child is becoming
more independent. Children also become very curious at this stage and want to
explore new things. Parents should encourage this as this will help to develop
childrens skills in agility and coordination which will help in the future with
sports at school.



During the stage of development, there is a dramatic
change, the jump from childhood to becoming an adult. Young adults face major
changed to the body which with different hormones can cause them act moody or
angry. These emotional ups and downs can lead to increased conflict. A child’s
brain is still learning how to control and express emotions in a grown-up way.


During this time males and females appearance change
dramatically. They both will develop pubic hair and males will develop facial
hair. This is called puberty. Puberty is the time in life when a boy or girl
becomes sexually mature. It is a process that usually happens between ages 10
and 14 for girls and ages 12 and 16 for boys. It causes physical changes, and
affects boys and girls differently. In girls, you will first notice breast
development and girls will start their period. This is a hard time for girls as
there body is changing from a girl to a woman and can be quite stressful if not
fully explained and supported throughout. In boys, there voice will become
deeper and they will become more masculine. Both boys and girls may get acne.
They also usually have a growth spurt that lasts for about 2 or 3 years. This
brings them closer to their adult height, which they reach after puberty.(
MedlinePlus. 2018)


Neuroscience, also known as Neural Science, is the study
of how the nervous system develops, its structure, and what it does.
Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive
functions. Not only is neuroscience concerned with the normal functioning of
the nervous system, but also what happens to the nervous system when people
have neurological, psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as epilepsy
dementia, brain tumours and depression.  Brain
development is not just the gaining of new brain cells which are called
neurons, but by constantly forming connections between the cells which are
called synapses. Messages are sent by the neurons through the neurotransmitter,
to the body. Neurons themselves are vital in development. Neurons are
responsible for turning on and off genetics which can happen from the early
stages of embryo development. Throughout the lifespan the nervous system
continues to make new connections and change. For example, the human brain will
send a message to the body to react in a way which is appropriate for the situation
that is occurring. Meaning that if a child is going to be getting a surprise this
will allow the child to act in an appropriate way. Also when a child is
frightened or is being abused this will release Cortisol for stress. This will then
help the child to be able to cope with the situation and handle it to the best
of their ability. It was once believed that infants lacked the ability to think
or form complex ideas and remained without cognition until they learned
language. It is now known that babies are aware of their surroundings and
interested in exploration from the time they are born. From birth, babies begin
to actively learn. They gather, sort, and process information from around them,
using the data to develop perception and thinking skills. Jean
Piaget is a world known theorist on Literacy. According to him as the child
seeks to construct an understanding of the world, the developing brain creates
schemas. These are mental representations that organise knowledge. Piaget
believes that infants build an understanding of himself or herself and reality
(and how things work) through interactions with the environment. They are then
able to differentiate between itself and other objects. Learning takes place
via assimilation (the organization of information and absorbing it into
existing schema) and accommodation (when an object cannot be assimilated and
the schemata have to be modified to include the object. This is called the
sensorimotor stage, which happens from birth to 2 years old. He then goes on to
talk about the preoperational stage which happens between 2 and 7 years of age.
This is when the child is not yet able to analyse the idea mentally and needs
concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways, especially
by important features. For example a car had 4 wheels therefore a child thinks
a bus is a car too because there is a relation their which then needs to be
adapted on a little bit to get a bus. The concrete operational stage usually
occurs between the age of 7 and 11 years, which means that physical experience
accumulates, accommodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly
and analyse, creating intelligent structures that explain his or her physical
experiences. The last stage us formal operations which can be seen in young
adults age 11+. When at this stage, cognition reaches its final form. By this
stage, the person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational
judgements. He or she is capable of thinking for themselves. His or her ability
for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult. ( Learning Theories. 2018).
This is good as it allows a human to become a well-rounded individual by
adolescence. They can communicate, learn, and care for themselves and others
when they have developed. A disadvantages to having these higher order
functions is that it takes a relatively long time for an individual to develop
fully, they are dependent on parents or carers until they develop these skills.


Attachment is a
theory developed by psychologists to explain how a child interacts with the
adults looking after him or her. If a child has a healthy attachment, this
means the child can be confident that the adults will respond to the child’s
needs, for example if he is hungry, tired or frightened, the adult caregiver
will respond to meet his needs or reassure and comfort him