Christianity?A that is the Prophet Muhammad. Jews, however,

Christianity?A monotheistsic
Abrahamic religion
named after Jesus
Christ, its followers being called Christians. Christians believe
that Jesus (Isa
in Arabic) was the saviour of humanity and that he was sent by God to die for the sins
of mankind, and that Jesus’ arrival had been prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (equivalent to
the Christians’ Old
Testament). They believe that during his life Jesus performed
miracles including curing people of illnesses, resurrecting the dead, turning
water into wine, walking on water and making a fig tree wither. Jesus died by
crucifixion (on a wooden cross, which became the symbol of Christianity), but
three days later came back to life, and ascended into heaven forty days after
this. This resurrection is a key element of Christian belief, and it is said to
provide evidence of an eternal life to those who believe. He asked for those
who had killed him to be forgiven, which also forms a cornerstone of Christian

The life of Christ is set during the
height of the Roman Empire, and it was under Roman rule that he was crucified.
This puts Christianity midway between Judiasm and Islam chronologically. Muslims believe
that Jesus was a prophet,
but not that he was the last one, as that is the Prophet Muhammad. Jews, however, do not believe that the
prophet prophesied in the Torah
has yet come to earth, but believe that Jesus was just one of many Jews who had
been persecuted and killed by the Romans. However it was from within the Jewish
community that Jesus’ life started to take on significance and the new-found
religion of Christianity began to spread.

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The early days of Christianity were
hard, with persecution at the hands of Romans and Jews commonplace. However the
religion did begin to get a foothold until in the fourth century ce
the Roman emperor Constantine decreed that Christianity should be tolerated; Theodosius
I declaring Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire followed
this in 380 CE. The Roman Catholic Church is to this day headed inside Rome,
since 1929 in its own city-state called Vatican City. Since this empire covered
much of Europe, North Africa and the Caucasus, the religion was able to
flourish and became the dominant religion in the whole of Europe. Colonisation,
conquest, conversion and exploration by European powers from the Middle Ages
onwards led to Christianity becoming widespread in Africa, North and South
America and Australia, although by this time Islam was the dominant religion in
the region where Christianity started. Today Christianity is the world’s
largest religion by population, with roughly two billion adherents. It is
largely split into three groups: Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy, but
there are dozens of splinter and sub-groups of these groupings.

A rite of passage conveying a status change for males from young boys to
responsible men. Opinions differ as to whether it is legally obligatory (fard) or the
practice of Muhammad (sunnah). It is not
mentioned in the Qur’an, but many Muslims believe it is a requirement for conversion to Islam. It is often
identified as part of rites of purification (taharah) or traced
to the Old Testament practice of Abraham.
Circumcision has been variously interpreted as an outward symbol of
self-discipline in God’s
requirements, the inner growth of reason, the submission of base passions to
higher spiritual requisites, the physical acknowledgment of God’s hegemony over
uncontrolled instincts, and the deeper religious commitment expected of a
mature Muslim. The practice is not universal. In Europe and North America, it
is typically done in a hospital immediately after birth. Among traditional
societies in the Middle East, a separate rite occurs between the
ages of two and twelve as a part of ritual celebration, and older circumcised
boys are immediately required to join older relatives in public prayer and are
restricted from moving freely between the male and female parts of the house.

close?The end of
the day at a stock
exchange, after which prices do not change until the start of the
next trading day, known as the open. Close can itself also refer to the price
of an issue at this time.

CMA?Abbreviated form of Capital Markets Authority.

co-financing?An arrangement where more than one lending
organisation contributes to a joint loan, which might be done for one of several reasons. For
example the loan might be larger than a single lender is willing to put up
(which would be the case in a major infrastructural project); the loan could be
considered rather risky and the various lenders wish to reduce their exposure;
or perhaps the loan is for a government project, and competition or tendering
laws prohibit the government from using a certain private organisation.