The heat travels from one part of the fluid or gas to another. If a liquid or gas is heated, its density or mass per unit decreases. The hotter the liquid makes it less dense so it will rise to the top then the colder or denser fluids will sink this is called a convection current. The way convection effects this experiment is like this the heat will be moved to the glass by convection then the heat will be moved from here by conduction. Then from the feathers it leaves by convection. This does not play a big part as conduction. Radiation – here is the definition of radiation. In radiation heat travels through no substance.
Radiation is able to travel through a vacuum. Dull substances are able to absorb heat by radiation especially dull and rough surfaces. So in this experiment radiation will affect it like this the heat will be transmitted by radiation from the fluid then some of it will be absorbed. Then it will leave the feathers some of the heat by radiation. (The above definitions were helped from research from Encarta) From more research I have found out that penguins have an oil gland on their backs. This oil gland secretes over their feathers so when they get wet the water will just run off their feathers making them function normally.
When the feathers have been transmitted the heat by conduction, convection and radiation I have found out that they are good at keeping this heat. What makes them good at keeping the heat is because between the strands of feathers is trapped air and air is a very good insulator this is how they work. An example of something else that works in the same way is human skin that has hairs on it. WHAT MEASUREMENTS DO YOU INTEND TO TAKE? List the range and number of measurements you intend to take. State whether you will each measurement and how many times.
During this experiment I will have to take a lot of measurements here they are – The heat of the water will have to be 55 C – 60 C I will use a thermometer to measure this. The different amounts of feathers I intend to take will be 2g, 4g, 6g and 8g I will get these measurements by using electronic scales The amount of water will be 4omls so a measuring cylinder will measure this. After I have done each experiment with all of the different weights I will have to repeat it to make it more accurate. DESCRIBE YOUR PROCEDURE. State your method clearly and concisely in a point form. Make it accurate by including all details, volumes and amounts.
Include an apparatus list and, if necessary a clearly labelled diagram. Remember a fair test. AWith no feathers) Collect all of the apparatus and find a clear bench to work on. Get a plastic bag and wrap it around the test tube. Put an elastic band around it to stop it from falling off. Clamp the tube to the clamp stand. Now collect 40ml with a measuring cylinder from the water bath and pour it carefully into the test tube.
Now put the thermometer into the test tube and read the temperature when the temperature reaches 55 C – 60 C you can start the stopwatch. Using the stopwatch take the temperature every 1 minute for 10 minutes. Now repeat this experiment to get an average. (With feathers) Now you need to start to add feathers into the plastic bag. Measure 2g on the electronic scales and put them into the plastic bag and spread them evenly through the bag. Now wrap the plastic bag around the test tube and use an elastic band to hold the bag to the test tube.
Measure 40ml in a measuring cylinder from the water bath pour it carefully into the test tube with feathers around it. Now put the thermometer into the test tube and when it reaches 55 C – 60 C you can start the test tube Now take the temperature every minute for 10 minutes then repeat the experiment. You will have to do the same for 4g, 6g and 8g. HOW HAVE YOU MADE THE EXPERIMENT MORE ACCURATE? State how your experiment helps you to gain results. Include controls and secondary experiments. The ways I made the experiment more accurate is like this –
For all of the different measurements of feathers I took the temperature in the same place this is because of convection currents. I tried to keep the experiment in the same environment to do this I done all of the experiments in the same place of the classroom. This is to try and keep the same room temperature. I used the same equipment for all the experiments to try and keep it equal throughout. I used a measuring cylinder to get the exact amount of water. I used a thermometer to get the right starting temperature and to measure the temperature when I need to.
8g of feathers = 0. 5 C per minute From looking at the all or nothing experiment I can see that the feathers are causing the heat loss to decrease because the one with no feathers had the heat loss of 1. 4 C per minute and the one with feathers had the heat loss of 0. 5 C per minute.