Complete that folder are two documents, one is


Complete the following
items. The response to each item should not take more space than what has been
provided. (Each page ends with a horizontal line. Your answers for the
questions on that page should not extend beyond the line at the bottom of each


ARTICLES:  In Schoology, in the Age of Exploration
folder, you will find a folder called “IB Assessment on the Black Legend.”
Within that folder are two documents, one is an article by Gregory Cerio and
the other is an interview with Helen Rand Parish that was conducted by James S.
Torrens, S.J.  Read both articles very
carefully, perhaps more than once.

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CITATIONS:  Provide below a correctly formatted
bibliographic citation in MLA format for each of the articles.

Beach, Laura.
“Gregory Cerio Named Editor Of ‘The Magazine Antiques’.” Antiques And

Arts Weekly, Antiques And The Arts, 23 June 2016,

Cerio, Gregory. “‘Were the Spaniards That
Cruel?”.” Newsweek, 1991, pp. 48–51.

Guthrie, Julian.
Helen Rand Parish — Writer. SFGate, 15 May 2005,

“James Torrens,
S.J.” St. Ignatius College Preparatory, San Francisco, CA, 5 Apr.

Torrens, James S., and Helen Rand Parish.
“Las Casas: Defender of the Indians.” America,

167, no. 2, 25 July 1992, pp. 30–34.

CONTROVERSY:  The articles illustrate a
controversy. Explain briefly, in your own words, what that
controversy is.

controversy expressed between the two articles relates strongly to native
mistreatment and Spanish adaptation around the peoples already in the New
World. The article about Las Casas highlighted/exaggerated the main injustices
and mistakes made by Spain in the 16th century. It follows Bartolome
de Las Casas as he works to critique the mistreatment he sees in America. In
the article by Gregory Cerio, the tone is more shifted to defending Spain and
its positive contributions to the Spaniard-Native relationship. This controversy
involving the two sides views on the mistreated Indians provides an insight
into the details that either side may be unwilling to accept.


THESES:  State the thesis of each historian’s


Based on
the events of Las Casas’s experiences, Spain’s unjust treatment of the natives
resulted in a genocide and its decreased power.



Spain was
not directly responsible for a mass killing of the natives, however the Spaniards
worked to adapt the them into their society, consisting of Christianity and
learning the labor force in the encomienda.



ARGUMENTS:  Briefly summarize the main
points of each historian’s argument. This sheet gives you 3 numbered items for
each author; you are not limited to 3 items for each, so add numbers to each
list as needed.  Be specific. Insert an
in text citation. Put the historians’ arguments in your own words; paraphrase



1.       Parish believed Bartolome de Las Casas was
fully dedicated to obtaining justice and freedom for the natives that he had
grown fond of, since a young boy. He had admired the culture of the Indians
when he was brought by his father to the New World and wanted to preserve it at
all costs.


2.      Las Casas believed in the idea that
accepting others would’ve been a more efficient way to introducing new ideas,
such as a religion, into a foreign environment. He criticized how the Spanish
forcefully brought the Indians into their society. A friar named Betanzos had
rallied colonists into getting rid of the anti-slavery ideas and having forced
labor once again. Las Casas could not stand for this and released the idea that
exploitation was not the way to peaceful conversion.


3.      Las Casas spread the reputation of
Spain as having a mass genocide of the natives in the New World. He noticed the
raising death tolls of the natives and sought out to write the Larguissima, an account for the deaths
of the Indians not being disease, but predominantly genocide.




1.      Many spun stories famously
associated with the bad reputation Spain had towards the rest of Europe.
Although hated by most other nations, Spain was one of the most powerful and
they were feared.


2.      In ways more than one, Spain has
helped out the natives by offering new opportunities to learn about the
advanced world. From building utilities for them to housing them in a
Spanish-converted community, the Spanish were always looking for ways to better
their investment.


3.      The Black Legend was composed of
accusations and shifted-from-the-truth stories. Although depicted as “corrupt
and intolerant”, the Spaniards were never barbaric in the sense of acting like
savages. The barbaric acts were not a common thing for Spain, which is the
opposite to what most people based the legend off of. (Cerio, pp. 48)



EVIDENCE:  The historians give you a good
deal of information that they use as evidence to support their arguments. List
each author’s evidence here as a numbered list. Each item of evidence you
include here should correspond to one or more points in the argument you
described in Part V. At the end of each item in Part VI, place in parentheses
the numbers of the points of argument from Part V, that correspond to the
evidence items here.  Insert footnotes
for each item. Be sure to use your own words; paraphrase fully.



1.      Las Casas worked very hard to find
freedom for the natives under Spanish control, once using “some 22 packloads
of…notarized documents, called probanzas,”
for the court. (1, Parish, 32)


2.      Las Casas and a native chief spread
the idea that God accepts all as should his subject in “the way of neighborly
love and peace”. (2, Parish, 31)


Many enemies of the Indians worked against Las Casas to take away their rights.
By getting Charles V to bribe Pope Paul III to recall his policy, influenced by
Las Casas, valuing “Peace in Europe” over the “price of Indian freedom.” These
enemies brought Las Casas to court many times, resulting in some wins, but
often losses, proving the dedication he put in to save the Indians. (1&3, Parish,



1.      Weaker nations created the barbaric
reputation for Spain in a sort of “paper war” started by pamphleteers,
spreading the Black Legend of fake accusations. The Spanish, hated by most in
Europe at the time, “controlled the greatest empire the West has ever known.” (3,
Cerio, pp. 48)


2.      The reputation given by critiques
such as Las Casas, “who worked for 50 years to improve the treatment of
Indians,” said that Spain took place in a “Genocide… (which) may be the
unfairest one of the all the accusations” as the mass native killings came by
accidental diseases brought from Europe “not war or abuse.” (1, Cerio, pp.


3.      Isabella, Queen of Spain, gave
freedom to Indians who converted to Christianity, but with some limitations.
The Spanish really tried to adapt the Indians into their New World even
sometimes teaching “useful habits of industry”, whereas the North American
Natives were push out from the settlement. (2, Cerio pp. 49)


4.      The Spanish cared so much to
protect the “welfare of the natives” that “They established hospitals to
provide the Indians with medical care.” (2, Cerio, pp. 50)



PERSPECTIVES: The authors are trying to present the story from their own
perspectives. What is each author’s (or the interviewer’s) viewpoint and how
does that affect the way the story is told and the conclusions reached? Find
what information you can about each of the authors and the interviewer. Are all
three persons qualified to evaluate the historical account? Can you find any
evidence that the authors may be biased? Be specific in describing any such bias
or evidence.



The interviewer, James S. Torrens,
executes the interview without addressing the controversy over the Black Legend
and just stays on topic to find out about Las Casas’s side of the story. The
way that the questions are asked serve as topics for the discussion that Parish
returns. The interviewer has written many poems, religious books, and overall a
variety of literature, making him quite qualified in the field of generating
questions, however during my research, I couldn’t find any evidence where he
studied the Age of Exploration. This may lead me to believe that he was just
given the interviewer job with no background knowledge on the material, other
than the books by Parish, having no bias as merely the asker of the questions.



Helen Rand Parish, inspired by Las
Casas’s accomplishments and journey, spent most of her life conducting research
on him. She viewed the Black Legend from a similar point of view how one of her
inspirations might. Las Casas and Parish were very educated researchers and
both were obviously biased to the side they dedicated their life to study. The bias
is easily picked out in the diction used in the interview with words relating
to the Spanish such as “rejected the horrible lie… dug into the corruption…
berserk… butchering…enemies…etc.” However, the excessive research may be useful
when judging the qualifications for evaluating the controversy. (Parish, 31-34)




a journalist, Gregory Cerio had the historical training to judge the other side of the story. Later becoming
a contributing member to the Antique art
buisness, historical story telling is one of Cerio’s main strongpoints. As
mentioned before, the perspective is on the contrary to Parish’s, and
highlights the good things the Spanish did for the Indians. A bias, less
prominent than Parish’s, exists through the diction of words that highlight the
accusations forced upon Spain, such as “tarnished by critiques… hated them… envious…
barbaric, corrupt and intolerant.” This bias suggests that the writer, Cerio,
highlights the effect of the Black Legend, being that everyone in Europe hated
Spain. (Cerio, pp. 48)






QUESTIONS:  For you to choose between the
two positions, you could use more evidence. What information might be needed
that is NOT included in the two articles?
Formulate three research questions about information you would want to know in order to choose a position on this issue.
Research questions should be relevant to
the controversy. Remember: imagine what information would be helpful, and
look for gaps in the information you have been given. These research questions
would guide you in undertaking further relevant research. Explain why answers
to these questions would help in choosing between the two positions.

1.      Where was Las Casas when the
Guerilla natives were dying off in a war with Spain for 15 years? If Las Casas was
“a value for the world”, then why does he seem to be absent when the natives were
suffering? An answer that suggests he wasn’t completely dedicated to the
Indians may mitigate the treatment Spain gave them. (United Nations, Parish,


2.      What events influenced the Black
Legend when Phillip II took reign than when King Charles V was the Spanish ruler?
Other factors may be responsible for Spain’s reputation and later lost power.
Las Casas, although exacerbated the Black Legend with criticism, may not be
accredited to the power decrease left for Phillip II.


3.      King Charles V established laws
that disbanded the encomienda, but the people of Spain convinced him to recall
the New Laws. A lack of money led King Phillip II to accept a bribery for the
Indians. How many of the rulers of Spain were influenced by its people?


OF INVESTIGATION: Where would you look for answers to the questions in VIII?  To score well on this part of the assessment,
you must be very specific, and you must think beyond the simple and the
obvious. The answer “websites and encyclopedias” would earn a score in the
lowest markband. Describe specific types of sources and give examples. To
answer this part of the assignment you need to do some preliminary research.
What information is available and where can it be found?

To find more information on Las Casas, I could read primary sources, such as Helen
Rand Parish’s book, Bartolome de Las
Casas, which is a biography about him. Primary sources are first-hand
information, like the texts written by Las Casas, which have been translated and
could be analyzed further for significant research by finding excerpts of them
in digital forms online.

2. The time period between King
Charles V leaving and King Phillip II coming to the throne is left out of both
articles. Timelines and records with dates could be found in encyclopedias or
found through search engines as an online material. These are secondary sources
made from research of primary resources.

3. Another great source for
information is to check the internet. There are many reliable websites that
have shortened information so that you don’t have to search through the entirety
of a primary source.



Score your own assessment using the rubric.


Bi        =

Bii       = 4

Biii      = 6

Biv      =

Ciii      = 7

Dii       =


assignment is designed to “walk you through” the steps of the IB investigation
process. Which steps have you already used when doing academic research? What,
if anything, have you learned that is new to your thinking about the research
process? How will you use it in the future?



      Before this assessment, I had been exposed
to doing only some academic research steps, such as documenting sources with
recognized convention and using research methods to find the right information.
However, I learned that creating and sticking to a research plan will help your
research align with the research question. Overall, improving on researching
strategies, planning, and investigating will make my arguments come across stronger.