Concrete shape. The strength of concrete regularly enhance

Concrete is widely used
construction material for the various types of construction project. There are
different types of material used in concrete. Concrete is a composite material
of gravel, sand, crushed rock held together by a hardened paste of cement and
water. Concrete is strong and hard material, this is caused by chemical
reaction of cement and water. Concrete has hardly used in all types of
construction from canal, linings bridge, highway and dams to the most beautiful
and artistic of buildings. Concrete is mostly use for construction in
multipurpose. Concrete is a material which can be moulded in different shape.
The strength of concrete regularly enhance with times up to a limit and minimum
maintenance during the tune up limit of structure like calculate to further
construction materials similar to steel, wood etc. but concrete is a brittle
material and week in tension therefore forming cracks easily . For this reason
reinforcement is used to improve strength and durability of concrete. Through
plain cement concrete has high compressive strength and the tensile strength
concrete is low. Normally, tensile strength of concrete is very from 10 to 15 %
of its compressive strength. Then if a beam are constructed in plain cement
concrete, it has very low load carrying capacity. Therefore reinforced by steel
bar is used in tensile zone of the concrete beam, so the compressive stress is
given by concrete and tensile stress is carried by steel reinforcing bars.

The join action of steel and
concrete in a reinforced concrete section is dependent on the following factors

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Bond between concrete and steel bars.

Absence of corrosion of steel bars
embedded in the concrete

Almost equal thermal expansion of
both steel and concrete. Beam are an central part of structural element and are
normally horizontal. The principal function of building structures is to
support the major space enclosing element, commonly these are roofs, walls and
floors. The total performance of any building structure can be complex but
frequently two types of sub-structure can be identified between vertical
elements (related with walls) and horizontal elements (related with floors and
roofs. Vertical elements are walls, lift cores and columns etc. Horizontal
elements include trusses, slabs, space frames and most highly beams.

2 Typical frame showing principal structural elements


Constructed on unit weight,
concrete can be classified into three broad categories. Concrete containing
natural sand and gravel or crushed- rock aggregates, generally weighing about
2400 kg/m3, is called normal-weight concrete and is most commonly used concrete
for structural purposes. For the applications where higher strength-to-weight
ratio is desired, it is possible to reduce the unit weight of concrete by using
definite natural aggregates having lower bulk density. The word light-weight
concrete is used for concrete that weighs a smaller amount less than 1800
kg/m3. On the other hand, heavy-weight
concrete, used at times for energy shielding, is concrete produced from
high-density aggregates, and generally weighs more than 3200 kg/m3.
Strength classifying of concrete, which is prevalent in Europe and many other
countries, is not practiced in the United States. But, from the standpoint of
distinct differences in structure-property relationships, which will be
discussed later, it is useful to divide concrete into three general categories
based on compressive strength.