RESEARCH QUESTION.. 4
SMART CITY DEFINITIONS. 6
SMART CITY CONCEPT IN INDIA.. 7
Urbanization in India is
neither unique nor exclusive, but is similar to a worldwide phenomenon and has
led to the development of urban sprawl, as it has elsewhere in the world. Local
development plans of 53 cities across India are analyzed using content analysis
and grounded theory. The study reveals that cities in India are not completely
embracing smart-growth strategies in their development plans, and the use of
smart-growth strategies differs among highly populated metropolitan cities
versus less-populated cities. The study identified that four
barriers—conventional urban planning mindset, lack of incentive-based practices
and resources, ad-hoc planning, and lack of integrated land use transportation
and environmental planning—impede smart-growth strategies in India.
Key words: Smart
city; Definitions; Smart growth strategies; Policy framework; Mangalore.
GROWTH STRATEGIES FOR MANGALORE CITY
AIM: To understand
what smart cities are, how smart cities evolved and analyze the smart city
proposals proposed for Mangalore city.
RESEARCH QUESTION: whether or not
local development plans of Mangalore city promote policies that target smart growth.
Literature study on the smart city and
various definitions of the smart city by different authors.
Literature study to understand the theory
behind smart cities in Indian context.
Assessment to understand smart growth
index of Mangalore with the help of Berke and Conroy’s method using Mangalore
bye laws and Zoning regulations.
To assess the smart city proposal of
Mangalore city and to come up with the relevant guidelines.
In the last two decades,
the concept of “smart city” has become more and more popular in scientific
literature, national and international policies. To understand this concept it
is important to recognize why cities are considered key elements for the
future. Cities play a prime role
in social and economic aspects worldwide, and have a huge impact on the
environment (Mori, 2011). According to the
United Nations Population Fund, 2008 marked the year when more than 50 percent
of all people, 3.3 billion, lived in urban areas, a figure expected to rise to
70 percent by 2050. In Europe, 75 percent of the population already lives in
urban areas and the number is expected to reach 80 percent by 2020.
Many definitions of smart
cities exist. A range of conceptual variants is often obtained by replacing
“smart” with alternative adjectives, for example, “intelligent” or “digital”.
The label “smart city” is a fuzzy concept and is used in ways that are not
always consistent. There is neither a single template of framing smart city,
nor a one-size-fits-all definition of it (Michael O’Grady, 2012).
The term was first used
in the 1990s. At that time, the focus was on the significance of new ICT with
regard to modern infrastructures within cities. The California Institute for
Smart Communities was among the first to focus on how communities could become smart
and how a city could be designed to implement information technologies (Alawadhi et
Some years later, the Center of Governance at the University of Ottawa started
criticizing the idea of smart cities as being too technically oriented. In this
reading, the smart city should have a strong governance-oriented approach which
emphasizes the role of social capital and relations in urban development.
However, the “smart city” label diffused in the first years of the new century
as an “urban labelling” phenomenon. A few years ago, researchers started asking
real smart cities to stand up and to show the many aspects that are hidden
behind a self-declaratory attribution of the label of “smart city” (Hollands,
Nam and Pardo (Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of
Technology, People, and Institutions , 2011)investigated possible
meanings of the term “smart” in the smart city context. In particular, in the
marketing language, “smartness” is a more user-friendly term than the more
elitist term “intelligent,” which is generally limited to having a quick mind
and being responsive to feedback. Other interpretations suggest that “smart”
contains the term “intelligent,” because the smartness is realized only when an
intelligent system adapts itself to the users’ needs.
In the urban planning
field, the term “smart city” is often treated as an ideological dimension
according to which being smarter entails strategic directions. Governments and
public agencies at all levels are embracing the notion of smartness to
distinguish their policies and programs for targeting sustainable development,
economic growth, better quality of life for their citizens, and creating happiness (Ballas, 2013).
The table below reports
some of the different definitions and meanings given to the concept of “smart
city.” However, the table clarifies that the smart city concept is no longer
limited to the diffusion of ICT, but it looks at people and community needs.
Smart city as a
high-tech intensive and advanced city that connects people, information and
city elements using new technologies in order to create a sustainable,
greener city, competitive and innovative commerce, and an increased life
(Bak?c? et al., 2012)
Two main streams
of research ideas: 1) smart cities should do everything related to governance
and economy using new thinking paradigms and 2) smart cities are all about
networks of sensors, smart devices, real-time data, and ICT integration in
every aspect of human life
A city is smart
when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and
modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth
and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources,
through participatory governance.
(Andrea Caragliu et al., 2011)
Being a smart
city means using all available technology and resources in an intelligent and
coordinated manner to develop urban centers that are at once integrated,
habitable, and sustainable…
(Barrionuevo et al., 2014)
– a community which makes a conscious decision to aggressively deploy
technology as a catalyst to solving its social and business needs – will
undoubtedly focus on building its high-speed broadband infrastructures, but
the real opportunity is in rebuilding and renewing a sense of place, and in
the process a sense of civic pride. . . . Smart communities are not, at
their core, exercises in the deployment and use of technology, but in the
promotion of economic development, job growth, and an increased quality of
life. In other words, technological propagation of smart communities isn’t an
end in itself, but only a means to reinventing cities for a new economy and
society with clear and compelling community benefit.
A Smart City is
a city that gives inspiration, shares culture, knowledge, and life, a city
that motivates its inhabitants to create and flourish in their own lives.
A community of
average technology size, interconnected and sustainable, comfortable,
attractive and secure
(George Cristian Lazaroiu, 2012)
CITY CONCEPT IN INDIA
definitional boundaries are required to guide cities in the Mission. In the
imagination of any city dweller in India, the picture of a smart city contains
a wish list of infrastructure and services that describes his or her level of
aspiration. To provide for the aspirations and needs of the citizens, urban
planners ideally aim at developing the entire urban eco-system, which is
represented by the four pillars of comprehensive development-institutional, physical, social and
economic infrastructure. This can be a long term goal and cities can work
towards developing such comprehensive infrastructure incrementally, adding on
layers of ‘smartness’.
In the approach of the Smart Cities
Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure
and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable
environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The focus is on sustainable
and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable
model which will act like a light house to other aspiring cities. The Smart
Cities Mission of the Government is a bold, new initiative. It is meant to set
examples that can be replicated both within and outside the Smart City,
catalyzing the creation of similar Smart Cities in various regions and parts of
The core infrastructure elements in
a smart city would include:
i. adequate water supply,
ii. Assured electricity supply,
iii. Sanitation, including solid
iv. Efficient urban mobility and
v. affordable housing, especially
for the poor,
vi. Robust IT connectivity and
vii. Good governance, especially
e-Governance and citizen participation,
viii. Sustainable environment,
ix. Safety and security of
citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly, &
health and education.
Mangaluru has been known for its vivid culture and diversity among its
townsfolk and assimilation of various aspects which the changing times have
brought. The city “Mangaluru” in Karnataka has been selected as
one of the smart cities to be developed under the Ministry of Urban Development
(MOUD), Government of India’s Smart City Mission.
The four pillar of
Mangaluru smart city assessment:
Health and Education.
Alawadhi et al. (2011). Building Understanding of
Smart City Initiatives. US: Springer.
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(2013). What makes a ‘happy city’? Cities, 32, S39–S50.
al. (2014). The role of infrastructure in the future city: theoretical
perspective. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 247-251.
(2012). Smart Cities Design using Event-driven Paradigm and Semantic Web . Informatica
Eger, J. M.
(2009). Smart Growth, Smart Cities, and the Crisis at the Pump A Worldwide
Phenomenon. I-WAYS – The Journal of E-Government Policy and Regulation ,
Lazaroiu, M. R. (2012). Definition methodology for the smart cities model. Energy,
Hollands, R. G.
(2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? City analysis of urban
trends, culture, theory, policy, action , 12, 303-320.
O’Grady, G. O. (2012). How Smart Is Your City? Science, 335,
Mori, K. &.
(2011). Review of Sustainability Indices and Indicators: Towards a New City
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Pardo, T. N.
(2011). Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and
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