OF LOCUS OF CONTROL
the era of growing and adapting of changes, student life and their best future is
important as their concentration in studies and their best performance. The way learners observe the world has a
great influence over their educational achievements. Studies have shown that
their sense of personal control over the educational process is one of the most
significant factors in maintaining individuals’ interest and involvement in
learning activities. This sense of personal control is known as Locus of
Control. By observing the student’s performance
first of all there is a need to define locus of control of an individual’s
behaviour in a long time.
trying to understand the foundational roots of locus of control, the theories
from which it was based must be understood. The
locus of control is basic platform where researcher differentiates between the
student’s learning and attitude, locus of control must be fall in abilities and
changes. Abilities tell that how a student is able to keep his learning and best
and changes tells that how students adapt changes to keep learning effective.
Rotter (1966) refers the locus
of control as an outcome of an event decided by one’s own actions or by chance. In other words, who or what is
responsible for what happens. One who believes an outcome is decided by his or
her own actions is described to be someone high in internal locus of control.
An individual that attributes the outcome more to chance would be considered
high in external locus of control.
Locus of control is a psychological construct that
identifies an individual’s beliefs about the degree of personal control that
can be exercised over the environment” (Grimes, Millea, & Woodrl~ff, 2004,
p.129). Locus of control can be divided into two separate sources of
and external. An individual can have either an external locus of control or
an internal locus of control. A person who has an external locus of control
believes that they have little power to affect personal outcomes (Wang &
Anderson, 1994). If the person has an internal locus of control they understand
that they are able to control and manipulate things that happen in their lives.
Individual who have internal locus of control can
affect the events by both negative and positive way by considering their ego,
concept and the individual who have positive locus of control can affect the
events by fortune, chance and fate as well as self-confidence (Kutanis, 2011).
#Rotter (1966) hypothesized that an
individual develops a generalized expectancy of control when reinforcement is perceived as
contingent on his or her behaviour.
The concept of reinforcement includes rewards and punishments are important in
understanding locus of control. In other words, consequences influence
behaviour. In connection with locus of control, behaviour
that results in reinforcement serve to strengthen an individual’s perception of
control. On the other hand, when reinforcement fails to occur, the generalized
expectancy will diminish or extinguish (Gifford et al., 2006). It helps individual’s preserve their self esteem when
they fail. Internal locus of control is defined as an individual’s perception
that a particular reinforcement is contingent upon their own behaviour or
permanent characteristics (Rotter, 1966). In other words, Individual believes
that their behaviour and reinforcement is guided by their personal decisions
and Fox, (2005) relates the people’s attitudes, emotions, health, and
motivation, as well as behaviour in organizations and educational institutions
to locus of control. The locus of control scale has been adapted to measure
attributions in various settings.
In our culture it is typically perceived as the result
of luck, chance or fate. It could also be stated as the chance happening of fortunate
or adverse events.
It is therefore important to identify students’ locus of control to
advance remediation in their academic attitudes where necessary (Anastasi,
OF STUDENTS WITH THE SPECIFIED LOCUS OF CONTROL
#Locus of control depends on ability and
change with uncertainty. Locus of control identify the reaction of the
individuals according to their status. It deals with attitude of the individuals who
have less tolerance resist to the change, some of which have high tolerance and
adapt changes easily. The students who have internal locus of control beliefs
in they can manage or set situations
according to their abilities. On the other hand, people who have external
locus of control belief that all the
situations is due to external factors (Abid, Kanwal, Nasir, Iqbal &
#Past studies have consistently found that locus of
control is associated with psychological well-being such studies include Garber
(1980) who concluded that indicators of good psychological well-being came from
participants reporting lower indices of
stress and depression, linking it to high internal locus of control.
# Grob (2000) reported that stress is often the result of feeling powerless in a given
situation, which suggests it is linked to having an external locus of control.
# According to Emmons and Diener (1989), individuals
who are low in self-esteem are more
likely to believe outcomes are not under their own influence and control, and
Emmons (1986) concluded that different variables influence well-being if they
affect a person’s ability to achieve his or her goals.
#Wang and Anderson (1 994) performed two studies that examined the
differences in excuse-making and blaming by subjects with internal versus
external locus of control. People with external LOC assigned more blame to the other person compared
to themselves. Those with external LOC were more likely to blame others they
were also more sensitive to being blamed. Those with an external locus of
control believe that their direct actions do not impact outcomes they
encounter. Individuals, in turn, are less
likely to do what it takes to take advantage of the possibilities that life
presents. This is due to the possible motivational, emotional, and
cognitive deficits an external locus of control creates. People with an
external locus of control are more likely to experience from other both physical and mental ailments because
they believe they have no control over their situation.
#In an interesting divergence theory cross-cultural study, more
individualistic cultures were shown to have high subjective well-being,
attributing it to high internal locus of control (Stocks, 2012). Klonowicz
(2001), in trying to measure locus of control as a determinant of subjective
well-being made similar conclusions, concluding that high internal locus of
control relates to more positive affect.
showing an internal locus of control demonstrates higher levels of career maturity and lower levels of indecision
(Brown et al., 2000; Carver et al., 1989; Hartman et al., 1985). Hence,
internal students have a higher work
readiness than external students, and consequently internals have high work
readiness as opposed to externals.
who identify as internals obtain significantly high grade point averages (GPAs)
(Fong, 2000; Gifford et al., 2006; Trusty and Lampe, 1997). In addition,
internals show significantly low
academic procrastination, low debilitating test anxiety, and have high academic
achievements (Carden et al., 2004; Kesici et al., 2009; Park and Kim,
1998). Hence, internality is a moderator of academic work readiness and a
positive attitude towards academics. Contrarily, externality is characterized
by procrastination, test anxiety, helplessness, depression, and hence low
academic achievement (Anderson et al., 2005; Kelly, 2002; Nunn and Nunn, 1993; Twenge
et al., 2004), which all point towards low
#Research suggests that internal locus of control has a connection with
the concept of “self as agent”. This means that an individual’s
thoughts control their actions. After the individual realizes this executive
function of thoughts they will be able to positively influence their beliefs,
motivation, and academic performance. The concept of “self as agent” can
intentionally or unintentionally direct, clioose, and control the use of all knowledge
structures and intellectual processes in support of individual goals and
# Those with an internal locus of control believe that hard work and personal abilities will lead
to positive outcomes. Literature reviews show that individuals with
internal locus of control and external locus of control vary in several ways,
predominantly in terms of their cognitive activity and environmental mastery
(Dollirrger, 2000). Since, they are
more insightful to their situations; individuals with internal locus of
control appear to wield more control over their lives. Individuals with an
internal locus of control are more prepared to obtain and make use of
information that is significant to their goals. Individuals with an internal
locus of control are more likely to take responsibility for their actions, are
not usally affected by the opinions of others, and generally do better at
activities when they can work at their own speed. By comparison, individuals
with an external locus of control are more
likely to blame outside influences for their mistakes and credit their
successes to luck, chance or fate rather than to their own actions. They are
affected by the opinions of others and the status of the opinion-holderis aloso
taken into, while people with an internal locus of control pay closer attention
to the content of the opinion regardless of who is saying it. According to the
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood &Adolescence (n.d.) some researchers have
claimed that a person with internal locus of control tends to be more
intelligent and more success oriented than those with external locus of
of control influences the affective and behavioral responses of students to
educational service encounter (Bateson and Hui, 1987). These responses include
information search (Lumpkin and Caballero, 1985; Wallston, 2005; Wallston and
Wallston, 1978), customizing or personalizing the service process, and active
participation in the service encounter (self-efficacy). Internally oriented
individuals engage in more active information search than are externals
(Lefcourt and Wine, 1969).
Grob, A. (2000). Perceived control and subjective well-being across
nations and across the life span. In E. Diener, & E.M. Suh (Eds.), Culture
and Subjective Well-Being, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 319-339.
Garber, J. & Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.) (1980). Human Helplessness:
Theory and Applications,
New York, NY: Academic Press.
Klonowicz, T. (2001). Discontented people: reactivity and locus of
control as determinants of
subjective well-being. European Journal of Personality, 15,
OF CONTROL VS ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT
#Lebedina- Manzoni (2004) found in a study of students
beliefs about academic success that, unsuccessful students compared to
successful ones stated success depended on circumstances which are directed
towards outside influences and were beyond their control. Luck, parents, and
teachers were among the things unsuccessful students felt influenced their
academic success. Externally orientated students were more likely to engage in
passive and unsuccessful study strategies, cope poorly with course-induced
stress, achieve lower grades, and blame others for poor performance relative to
the internally orientated students (Grimes et al., 2004).
find information regarding low performance of students at territory level in
result of research the one of the most important is absence. Researcher observes that student attendance is one of the
important ways to achieve studies success because there is a direct link between attendance and academic
achievement. He can prove it by conducting a test on a university then
results is that if student maintain their attendance so they can achieve
academic success and finally they build strong locus of control (Tella, 1992).
#Researcher can find the information
that such students have positive locus
of control who have strong educational background such students perform
well since childhood and remain good at college and university. Such students
know well when teacher deliver their lesson due to their strong background
#Research study tells high achieving
students must adopt external locus of
control strategy through which they should able to achieve well academic
performance on the other side low achieving students must adopt internal locus
of control strategy. Researcher can find results that gender may create
interruption in locus of control his findings tells that males pretend more
locus of control then females (Hasan, 2014). Students who have study habits
must achieve academic performance and such academic performance is going to be
positive locus of control. Internal locus of control is the way where you got
high academic achievement. Adoption of external locus of control may be caused by
continuous failure in academic session in university (Oshati2, 2014).
FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
positive locus of control on student performance is that they learn those subjects easily which is
difficult for students. This can be done by done by training in such a way
where self-efficiency and self-dependence are created in both males and females
various important educational implications of locus of control in the academic
achievement of students. For instance, locus of control strongly influences the decision to invest in
education (Coleman and DeLeire, 2000). This is in accordance with the
expectancy theory or theory of reasoned action of Vroom(1964) as cited in Ajzen
and Fishbein (1980), which asserts that work motivation is a function of two
expectancies: that effort will lead to performance, and that performance will
lead to valued outcomes.
#On the other
hand, teenagers who believe that their human capital investments or other “internal”
factors will have a strong impact on their future opportunities might be more
likely to complete school or attend college/university (Ajzen and Fishbein,
1980). Hence, students in university should use internal locus of control and
be able to make educational investments by exhibiting high academic work readiness.
that explains the influence of locus of control on academic work is the achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986).
According to the theory, students are motivated to either develop a skill,
termed mastery orientation, or demonstrate a skill, termed performance
orientation. Students with a mastery orientation focus on learning and
understanding while students with a performance orientation focus on creating
an aura of competence (Dweck, 1986; Kaplan and Maehr, 2007). For students with
a performance orientation, competence is demonstrated through comparison with
others (externality) while for mastery-oriented students, the comparison is to
an internal standard (internality) or an absolute level (Kaplan and Maehr,
2007; Nicholls, 1984). Thus, locus of control operates through teenagers’
expectations of the returns to human capital investments.
Yunusa Umaru, P.
U. (2015). Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of
Control and Academic Self –Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in
Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(18).
Retrieved april 9, 2016.
Tella, J. A.
(1992). Class Attendance and Gender Effects on Undergraduate Students’
Achievement in a Social Studies Course in Botswana. The Journal of
Psychology, 126(5), 487-494. Retrieved april 9, 2016.
Oshati2, E. O.
(2014). Psychological Variables as Correlate of Students’ Academic Achievement
in Secondary School Economics in Oyo State, Nigeria. 1Faculty of Education,
University of Fort Hare, South Africa, 5(2), 125-132. Retrieved april 9,
(1995). Closing The Gaps Between Schools: Accounting For Variation In
Mathematics Achievement In Australian Schools Using Timss 95 And Timss 99. Australian
Council for Educational Research, Anstralia. Retrieved april 9, 2016.
Abid, Kanwal, Nasir, Iqbal &
The Effect of Locus of Control on Academic Performance of the Students at
Tertiary level. International Review of Management and Business Research Vol. 5
Issue.3. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external
control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1),