During Middle East, Iran, North Africa, as well

During the beginnings of Islam, during the development traditions of Islam,  The idea of the “Greater Jihad” had developed, which involves the aspect of  spiritual struggle in odds with human desires. A concept, which is widespread in our concurrent discussions of the Islamic religion. Islam Scholars often make the point that jhd, the Arabic root of “jihad”, is related in general to  the idea of struggle, yet it has been mistaken with the persistence towards warfare.  Muslims argue that the tradition of the Greater Jihad, and what it truly stands for shows that Islam origins was a peaceful movement.  Robert Hoyland, the Author of  In God’s Path and a historian of the Middle East shows in his his writing, the story of events that took part in the rise of Islam. That it is in large, a story of military conquests,  fighting to give rise to their religion. During the time of early beginnings, through which Prophet Muhammad led the Islamic community, their need to use military powers against non-Muslims who threatened their very existence was necessary. These organized movements began in the roots of the Arabian Peninsula, dispersing across  Middle East, Iran, North Africa, as well as parts of  Central Asia. The success of their conquests, built up their territory and enemies, which further fueled many conquests to come. Muslim leaders were judged for their prominent and impressive success in the fight against non-Muslim forced. A fight, that I believe other religions have taken before them as well.Yet the reader of In God’s Path, may not be able to ignore the impression of aggression that was present throughout the conquest. In every direction, Mohamed sent out messages that asked people to convert, and those who declined were faced by the Islamic forces. One of Islam’s vital gains was Constantinople (Hoyland, 110).  In years between  and again in 717–18 (a similar parallel to 674–78) one of the biggest armies yet made by the Muslims was organized by the Umayyad (rulers of the time) to took over the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Unfortunately, the campaign resulted in utter failure. The militancy style of early society in Islam was similar to other societies. However, it is important to note that the Arab forces were not intent on creating bloodshed. The rule, whenever able, relied on the use negotiations and strategies to convince the cities towards submission without a fight. But when their opponents showed opposition, however, they reacted with force. In his book, Hoyland describes the fight that took seven thousand Byzantines lives taken by the Muawiya caliph in Caesarea during 641. And of Jur and Istakhr massacred, in which forty thousand inhabitants sacrificed in the Iranian cities during the early 650s (hoyland, 111). Hoyland, paints a picture of the executions that came along the Islamic conquest in areas such as Spain. The Arabs were successful in defeating their enemies; also smart and prosporuos enough to build a long lasting civilization, which has been noted by seemingly keen piety and stable institutions. Hoyland’s view on the way the conquests played out shines a light on the question of whether the muslim movement was spiritual or material. But I think there’s a fine line between the two or rather a hard way to distinguish and tear them apart. At the time and for a long time, warfare was an honorable way of spreading one’s rule and expanding territory. There is not much leniency for different cultures and religions to coexist and when those who were different came to be they had to fought to exist. During Islam’s development into an organized religion during the late 700s, on the other hand, warfare was treated as a central element of the faith. The later development of Islam, during the time, involved the need to corporate a militant culture to the conquest. The tradition of the “Greater Jihad”, is exaggerated to be the center of holy war. Even then, the confusion in regards to the purpose of war remained a relatively unpopular view. Yet such view in itself  doesn’t delegitimize the view of Islam as a peaceful religion. Because much of the Islamic and the Quran traditions that clearly sets its cores on building a faith of peace. But, the history by which the faith came to be is not enriched into the people but rather a celebrated over shined story is held dear. Lessons on early Islamic history do not take note to remorse the killings and enslavements that went hand in hand with the conquests. The great warriors of the conquests who defeated infidels and conquered cities are held up as heroes of Islam. The leaders (the first four caliphs) of these conquests are cherished as righteous people. And the conquests are remembered as milestone achievements for Islam. But rather it must be remembered that the conquest of the Arabs involved rather an immense amount of human suffering for both the Arabs and their enemies.