Environment circumstances resulted in a pessimistic outlook on

Environment
and geography play a large role in the evolution of a civilization, and a
person’s response to said environment is in direct correlation to their outlook
on life. This correlation can be seen in today’s society and was even apparent
in ancient civilizations, as it was in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Mesopotamia and
Egypt were located within a close proximity of one another, but both had vastly
different experiences with their environment. These experiences resulted in
their opposing views of the world, and heavily influenced how they approached
religion, politics, war, art, and culture. Mesopotamia was subjected to
unusually harsh environmental conditions including irregular flooding, and the geography
of the land did little to shield them from frequent invasions. Whereas in Egypt,
their environment was more favourable towards their living conditions, providing
regular flooding which prepared them for their growing seasons, as well as shields
that were established by the Mediterranean Sea and harsh desert which prevented
attacks from possible invaders. These circumstances resulted in a pessimistic
outlook on like in Mesopotamia, and a much more positive outlook on life in
Egypt. In Egypt, politics and religion went hand-in-hand: those who were in
positions of power were believed to be related to their supreme god, Pharaoh.
In Mesopotamia, however, they did not consider those in power to be divine; their
gods were members of noble families, and had no relation whatsoever to their
kings. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt shared in their beliefs of multiple gods and
were polytheistic. Both civilizations also shared in the belief of life after
death, preserving bodies of the dead and their belongings to ensure their
presence in the afterlife. In war and law, Mesopotamia and Egypt were immensely
different. Due to war being common in Mesopotamia, both from invaders as well
as among city-states, laws were created to try and maintain harmony within
their civilization. Egypt had a different approach, as war and invasion was not
common, they established a set of societal norms that would allow them to
maintain harmony within their civilizations. As it can be seen, their different
views of the world can be observed in their somewhat similar, yet immensely
different ways of life.