Floor – children may slip on the floor, trip over the carpet, there may be rubbish on the floor left by other person. Stairs – children may fall down the stairs Windows – children may fall out Doors – children may escape, they make trap fingers Plug sockets – children may poke objects in to the sockets. The outdoor environment – plants, safe surfaces, access and fencing, dustbins and rubbish, equipment, sun. Plants – avoiding plants with poisonous leaves and berries.
Safe surfaces – areas to be flat and clear, suitable surfaces for under the climbing frame and swings. Surfaces must be checked for vandalism and any animal droppings to be cleared and disinfected. Access and fencing – must be secure and in good repair. Gates must be self closing and at least 1.2m high and always locked. Dustbins and rubbish – dustbins to be out of the reach of the children, if children are to pick up the rubbish, then they must be told to wash their hands after. Equipment – to be checked regularly for wear and tear. Children must be of appropriate age of the equipment. Children must be supervised at all times. Sand pits must be covered at the end of the day. On a sunny day, equipment must be checked if metal because it can become very hot in the sun.
Sun – shaded areas must be provided. Sun screen must be put on to the children. Children must wear sunhats. Equipment and resources Purchasing – the equipment bought for the children should be conformed to recognisable standards, I.e. the standard mark. Age appropriate – equipment must be appropriate for the age of the child. Labelling must be checked on the equipment. Young children can choke on small pieces or may fall down on large equipment, such as bikes. Storage – all equipment must be stored away safely. The shelves must be securely fixed, so the children can reach the equipment safely. Heavy equipment must not be carried by a member of staff on their own, a method of transportation must be used. Resources such as glue, play dough, must be checked to see if it is suitable to use.
Maintenance – all equipment is to be checked regularly. Items that are broke must be thrown away and be replaced. Teaching self-protection – this can be done by giving children the information they need, promote awareness and encourage coping skills. Here is a list of concepts, that can be helped to teach the children to protect themselves. 🙂 Saying ‘no’, to strangers or adults they know, promoting the concept of ‘stranger danger’. this can be taught by using role play, acting out scenes on what you should do if a stranger came up to a child. By watching videos and reading books on children’ self-protection. The school could arrange for a police officer to come and talk about protection, how to be aware of things happening around them, discussing about trust with other people and the people close to them (family).
Teaching the children ‘good and bad touches’, if the touch hurts, where they are being touched, is it rude, does it make the child feel uncomfortable. This can be taught by promoting daily in school about physical care routines. Supporting children who say ‘no’ to cuddles or being touched. With older children having discussions, such as ‘I like cuddles from……, I don’t like cuddles from….. Teaching the children what good and bad secrets are. Telling the children that no one should ever ask a child to keep a hug, touch or a smack a secret. They must tell someone who they trust about this. This is a bad secret. A good secret would be something like a surprise birthday, as the child would not want to give this away.
Teaching the children that in some situations, children can help themselves by getting help, this can be done by being taught their own address and their phone number in case they get lost. Learning them which adult they should go to in case they need help. E.g. the shop assistant, a policeman, a school teacher. Arranging a police officer to come to school to discuss different strategies of getting help. Shouting ‘ no’ and to run to a safe place. Teaching children that their body belongs to them. Letting them know that they have control over their own body. This can be done by learning children, (young children), the vocabulary of the body with songs, (head, shoulder, knees and toes), also by planning to develop body awareness, e.g. matching body parts, drawing their own body and labelling their own body parts. Giving children reading books on parts of the body, helping them to understand which parts of the body are the ‘private parts’.
Teaching children, that they have a right to their own privacy, this can be learnt by giving the children physical care routines. E.g. toileting, going to the toilet on their own, having respect for themselves and others when getting dressed/undressed. Promoting discrete behaviour, e.g. not pulling a skirt up or pulling their trousers down in public. Activities again, discussing, who has the right to touch your body, e.g. a doctor and which parts of the body should not be touched by others.