Groundwater brackish for human consumption. For that wells

Groundwater
quality issues in the world

Groundwater is a
fundamental and very important factor of our life support system. Groundwater
resources are being utilized in various purposes of uses, such as for drinking,
irrigation and industrial purposes. This resource is regarded as the best water
resources for types of use. However, over the past two decades there has been a
growing worldwide concern about groundwater resources quality issues due to the
rapid growth of population, urbanization, industrialization and agriculture
activities. The stresses on groundwater, both in terms of quality and quantity
are growing rapidly. Therefore, there is growing worry on the deterioration of
groundwater quality due to anthropogenic and geological formations activities.
Improving of water quality issues has lead to an increased emphasis on a better
understanding of groundwater contamination and groundwater quality management.

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Terms such as
safe, pure and polluted have been widely used to describe water quality in
different criteria and standards based on purpose and type of water use.

(There are two
concepts that the contaminants occur in the subsurface. Contaminant
Hydrogeology addresses the problems of contamination by nonaqueous phse liquids
and multiple fluids in general. Contaminant Hydrogeology examines also the
issues of risk assessment as a basic tool for decision making about the
management of contaminated sites.)

Groundwater quality issues in Somalia

The abstraction of groundwater common
method used in Somalia is the hand-dug wells and borehole wells scattered in
the whole countrywide. High concentration/ present of high concentration of
dissolved solids throughout the country have necessitated the introduction of
relaxed water quality standards. According to the electrical conductivity,
wells exceeding 3,500 ?S cm-1 are highly saline and too brackish for human
consumption. For that wells designed for animal use have a limit of 7,500?S
cm-1. There is a high possibility that good water quality can be found within a
narrow range along the edge of gypsum deposits and in limestone formations west
the Shabelle River. The boreholes drilled in these areas are of quality which
can be used for drinking purpose and other uses. (1)

Mogadishu water quality

At the time of the former government, water
wells in Mogadishu were located outside the city for at least 17km and more. In
the wells of water wells, water quality assessments are estimated to be good in
the wells.

Based on the quality of water, the region
of Mogadishu wellfields which was former located outside of the city was in
good quality of groundwater. There was a fear that the interference may effect
of the adjacent wells which will result in excessive drawdowns. Therefore, an
excessive of drawdown can be resulted also in the contamination of the water
resources from the deep geological formations which are poorer quality of
groundwater. The drawdown has been restricted 8m to 13m depending upon the
quality of water and where the quality is poorest.

According to Sir Alexander Gibb and
Partners for Mogadishu Water Supply Expansion report (1981), the Sulphate
concentration and the Total dissolved Solids (TDS) are higher than the maximum
permissible level which Calcium, Magnesium and Chloride mostly greater than the
highest desirable level. (2)

Generally the concentrations recorded
suggested that the palatability of Groundwater may be impaired but should not
necessarily be harmful. The following Appendix C of different wells observed
and analyzed with different dates are shown below:

Water Quality –
Stage 1 Wells

(Ionic concentrations
in milliequivalents per Littre)

Wells

OW1B

OW2

OW3A

PW2

PW5

PW6A

PW8

Date

15.12.81

11.11.81

11.12.81

26.2.82

26.10.81

4.12.81

21.12.81

TDS, Mg/L

2803**

1312*

1866**

1540*

2169**

2689**

2208**

E. C. µs

3350

1500

2450

2000

2850

2800

2650

Ph

8.0

8.2

7.9

7.7

7.8

7.8

 

Ca

11.1**

4.4*

10.8**

10.5**

9.2*

11.6**

11.8**

Mg

13.5**

5.8*

11.5*

8.9*

11.5*

19.3**

22.2**

Na

15.7

8.7

5.7

3.5

12.6

9.6

4.8

K

0.3

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.4

HCO3

5.3

3.5

7.1

6.2

7.3

7.1

6.7

SO4

30.2**

11.5**

13.5**

12.5**

18.7**

26.0**

16.7**

CI

7.3*

4.5

8.2*

3.9

5.4

8.7*

10.2*

NO3

.3

0.4

<0.1 0.2 0.2 <0.1 0.1 ·         * Indicates a concentration which exceeds WHO highest desirable level ·         ** Indicates a concentration which exceeds WHO highest permissible level.     Factors affecting water quality (like geology, season, etc.. including citations) As a decision-making process to control the quality of groundwater, it is best to understand the factors influencing the quality of groundwater. Key factors affecting the quality of groundwater include: z ü  Variable Climate Change (Seasonal Changes) ü  Permeability and chemical composition of the geological structures through which groundwater flows ü  Depth of groundwater from surface (level of water table)