Health message when its outcomes occur in the

Health campaigns usually adopt a
communication frame that provides arguments to prompt individuals to behave in
a certain way (Hamilton, Biener, & Brennan, 2008). Temporal framing is the
process by which a behavioral outcome is presented form different temporal perspectives.
According to the CLT (Trope & Liberman, 2010), individuals form abstract
mental construals of distal objects that enable them to make temporal
predictions and consider hypothetical alternatives. In several studies, temporal
predictions were operationalized as temporal framing messages (Chandran &
Menon, 2004; Trope & Liberman, 2010). Temporal framing messages portray
different time frames over which the short- or the long-term consequences of a certain
behavior are manifested (Chang & Lee, 2009). Specifically, short-term
consequences address immediate behavioral outcomes whereas long-term
consequences address delayed behavioral outcomes. Because individuals prefer to
consider the hypothetical alternatives that are closely relevant to their goals,
the trait of CFC is assumed to guide the preference for certain kinds of temporal
frames over others (Orbell & Kyriakaki, 2008).

 CFC is a stable cognitive trait that impacts the persuasiveness of
the message and shapes individuals’ final evaluations of a behavior. When
confronted with a behavioral decision, people consider the short- and long-term
outcomes (Strathman et al., 1994).
Evidence suggests that individuals with lower CFC assign more weight to the short-term
consequences, whereas individuals with higher CFC value the long-term
consequences of a behavior more (Orbell & Kyriakaki, 2008). In other words, individuals lower in CFC have
a more positive disposition towards the message when its outcomes occur in the
short-term, compared to the long-term. Conversely, individuals higher in CFC are
better disposed towards the message when its outcomes occur in the long-term (Orbell & Hagger, 2006; Orbell &
Kyriakaki, 2008).

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In preventive communication, meta-analyses
did not find any effect of gain and loss framing on attitudes (Gallaggher &
Updegraff, 2012; O’Keefe & Jensen, 2008). However, Strathman et al. (1994) found that temporal
framing significantly predicts attitudes towards environmental messages (i.e.,
oil drilling). Attitudes were strengthened by the conditional effects between
temporal framing and CFC. This supports the assumption that the
effectiveness of temporal framing is largely moderated by CFC (Orbell &
Kyriakaki, 2008; Orbell, Perugini, & Rakow, 2004). The interaction between
temporal framing and CFC can have important implications for a person’s behavioral
choices and life outcomes (Kees, Burton, & Tangari, 2010; Orbell &
Kyriakaki, 2008; Orbell et al., 2004; Ouellette, Hessling, Gibbons, Reis-Bergan,
& Gerrard, 2005, Strathman et al., 1994).
Building on these findings, I propose CFC as a moderator on the main effect of
temporal framing on attitude. Thus, the first hypothesis of this study is
postulated: