of street crime in pakistan and prominent previous studies:
are many causes of crime. Various economic, cultural and demographic or social
factors determines crime. To curb crimes it is necessary one need to perceive
the meaning and cause of crime.
“Crime is any act restricted by public law for
the protection of the public. It is punishable by state in a judicial
proceeding.” _Marshall & Clarke(1952)
of crime not only define why it occurs at all but also its root cause given
various social, economic, cultural and demographic factors. Economists have
targeted these areas for research since they feel that crime is an amalgamated
outcome of the injustice felt by the underprivileged masses and that is primarily
why felonies and robberies are becoming exceedingly unpredictable.
In 1960s, fisher
started the study on crime, when he concluded that mainly low income and
unemployment in any society determines the level of crime. Becker, (1968)
stated that the rational behavior of criminal act is mostly a weighing of
benefits where an individual has to decide between legitimate and illegitimate
all the while looking at his own current financial state (Conclusion: an
individual commits crime when the expected usefulness of illegitimate activity
increases as compared to the usefulness of legitimate activity). because of
different social and cultural characteristics, reasons for crime vary from
country to country but the root cause for economists has always turned out to be
the above mentioned two determinants.
economist), in 1973, continued on with Becker’s work by finding that there was
a particular amount of time allocation in legal and illegal activities that effects
the crime rate. Ehrlich’s investigation supports Fleisher’s research. Any
change in income of family will lead to a change in crimes like murder, rape,
assault and property crime, and he also found that unemployment was positively linked
to crime rate.
statistics in the Punjab show that 3, 83,379 crimes were stated in 2009 whereas
in 2010, the reported crimes reached at 3, 86,437 showing only a slight
increase in crime however, the incidents of rape, gang rape have increased by
22%, robbery, vehicle snatching and burglary by a staggering 109%, kidnapping
by 13% and murder and attempt to murder by 15%, across the Punjab.
Cattle Theft has
seen an up rise since 2004 but the thing to note most is that most of the
crimes committed were in one way or another financially motivated. Very few
studies (namely Gillani et al. (2009) and Jalil & Iqbal, (2010) have
discussed demographics and social factors. The aim of this study was to form an
amalgamated report on the major 25 districts of Punjab.
Street crime in karachi
The last decade
has seen upturns and downturns in terms of street related crime in Pakistan the
overall trend has been upward despite the ever-expanding network of LEA monitoring
the city. In Karachi, thieves mostly commuting on motorcycles strategically
targeting citizens and snatches their valuables on almost a hourly basis. Thousands
of such incidents have been reported in the past month leading to residents
questioning the effectiveness of the security forces’ multiple operations and
crackdowns. Apart from robbery, number of extortion, murder and theft have also
been increasing steadly. In Karachi alone, the total count of various crimes
according to The Citizen’s Police Liaison Committee (CPLC) is as follows:
cell phones stolen
incidents of extortion
people lost their lifes
people were deprived of their cars
The Chief minister
of sindh has been very critical of these and ordered crackdowns and
constituting a committee under Law Minister with AG Sindh and Home Secretary to
call on Chief Justice Sindh High Court to dedicate certain courts for
speedy trial of street criminals.
The Safe Cities
Index 2017 is a report from The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) sponsored by
NEC. This report Ranks cities according to internet security, health security,
infrastructure security and personal security. Karachi, has finally been
included in the list of safe cities.
However, Karachi was
called as “Least Safe City in the past. EIU called Karachi as the worst city to
live in the world and security remained the biggest source of problem. A german
group also ranked Karachi as the worst city to own a car due to high probability
of being snatched.