The purpose of this investigation is to find out how successful the regeneration schemes in Liverpool were. The things that I am looking for is comparing the ‘then and now’ of the projects so I can see how they have improved the area. The improvements consist of the population and the environmental quality of the neighbourhood. I think what I might expect is that the quality has risen to a high started as most of the buildings are going to be modernised and have careful planning.
In the Industrial Revolutions times everything was done as a rush because the more goods they produced, the better the profits, and people moving to the area to find work, so worker houses were need to be there for when they came. I think that the population would have gone down since the schemes, even though the region has been improved. This would have been because there were so many people cramped up in smaller houses in he late 19th and early 20th Centuries, that now bigger houses have been built with gardens and new amenities, there is less population density so therefore less population.
Throughout my study I will try to answer the three following questions: What Regeneration schemes are there? Why does Liverpool need regeneration schemes? What have they done to regenerate the Albert Docks-How has it succeeded? Liverpool is situated on the West Coast of Britain, roughly 200 miles north west of London. This is a location where is it and some of the regeneration projects that have been completed. Source: http://www. multimap. com Just under a century and a half ago, the industrial revolution, Liverpool was a thriving port importing and exporting from all over the world.
In 1846 The Albert Docks opened and many people came to Liverpool to find jobs and a new home. However, because the docks were too small and the wrong side of the country for trade, they started to decline and by the 1960’s they had closed and the population had fallen. Much of Liverpool was in decline, but the Merseyside Development Corporation, M. D. C, reclaimed the docks after 1981 and attempted to revive an area of massive dereliction. Other projects also started regeneration including Cathedral Park and Project Rosemary and The Eldonian Village.
Data Selection, Collection and Recording Methodology Table Type of Data Reasons for Collection When and where collected Method of Collection Problems of Collection Raw Data What I thought of the area Albert Docks, The Eldonians, Toxteth Table, and also a points system only had one day/couldn’t get out of the bus/visited once Map of Liverpool The location of Liverpool and its regeneration projects On the Internet, www. multimap. com.
Search on the internet None Pictures Showing the ‘then and now’ of Liverpool and it’s docks Collected from the New College Intranet and websites found on www.google. com Searching for ‘Albert Docks’ Couldn’t find the exact pictures that were needed. Brochures Gives a correct view on the regeneration project by an independent body. Resource Centre Gathering information from the place itself. There isn’t enough key information Media Release It’s an official document that tells facts Resource Centre (Release date: 28th July 1987 Going to the Resource Centre None News Paper Article Tells direst information Resource Centre (‘The Eldonian’ May 3rd 1989 Photocopying from recourses Sometimes gives a bias view Population Graph.
It shows how the population of Liverpool has increased and decreased with the opening and closing of the Albert Docks From the internet Gathering the population from the same source to display in a graph The dates are equal amount apart. This methodology tables shows the information that I collected as primary and secondary data. There were two pieces of primary data that I collected, both of which are evidence for the type of housing (Figure A) and environmental quality (Figure B) of three regeneration schemes, The Albert Docks, The Eldonian Village and District Age of Housing.
Housing Type Size of Houses Tenure Road Patterns Garage Provisions Burglar alarms Garden Provision Range of Housing Local Facilities Env. Quality Toxeth 18th & 19th Century/Modern 3 storey quite large Private Straight/Varied none some mixed mixed Renshaw Factory/Hospital 54/100 Eldonians 1980’s semi-detated 1,2,3 beds Rent Cul-de-sac none some yes Bungalows/houses community centre/sprts centre 84/100 Albert Docks Modern Flats 2-beds Rent Straight underground parking yes no flats close to CBD/Tate Gallery/Museums/Offices 92/100 Project Rosemary in Toxteth. Figure A
In the last column it gives the environmental quality out of 100 (100 being the maximum), the graph below (Figure B) gives the detail in which I based it on. District Building Condition Conditions of walls/fences Private Caretaking Greenery Pavement and road Surfaces Litter Street Amenities Advertisements Parked Traffic Pedestrian Safety Total Toxteth2 Figure B As you can see the Albert Docks has the highest number, showing that it is the most pleasant area to live. Figure C.
Figure C shows the Environmental Quality table as a graph. It is easier to show how each area compares to each other. The secondary data that I collected were a lot of before and after pictures of the Albert Docks. For example: Data Representation, Analysis and Explanation The Regeneration of the Albert Docks was run by the MDC, Merseyside Development Corporation. The Albert Docks is the largest group of Grade I Listed Buildings in the United Kingdom and was designed by Jesse Hartley. The construction of the warehouses represented a confident and daring use of the new technology of the age.
Goods such as cotton, tobacco and sugar were stored in the building. The mission of the M. D. C was “to secure the self sustaining regeneration of central Merseyside. ” They completed these key objectives: The Key Objectives To create a social, economic and environmental infrastructure in central Merseyside fit for the beginning of the 21st century. To secure 65,000 jobs, in a renewed enterprise economy, thereby doubling the area’s number of jobs. To Provide 4,500new and improved homes, for some13,000 people, doubling the area’s original population.
These main objectives also help: The creation of a positive perception of Merseyside Improving access to opportunities for local people, in terms of transport, skills, housing, jobs and amenities o establish strong partnership with Central and Local Government and Merseyside’s Business and Community Leadership. Attracting inward investment from North America and the Far East The pictures below show the ‘before and after’ the Albert Dock regeneration. To revive the massive area of dereliction the total cost was about i?? 60 million and took from 1981-87.
I am going to use this source because it shows how Liverpool has improved the area to introduce more visitors, therefore more money going back into the city and more regeneration schemes like this can go forward. During the redevelopment of the docks, thousands of people would have to be employed for the planning and renovation. This would have bought jobs to the unemployed and more workers would come to the area. This prestigious development has resulted in which it includes; the Tate Gallery, Granada TV Studios, the Maritime Museum, wide range of shops and places to eat aimed at tourists, 6 million come a year!, high quality residential units draw the middle classes back into the city centre.
There is also a full caretaker service and secure underground parking. In 1993, a new development was opened for Littlewoods Chain Stores bring more employment into the docks. Also relocated Customs and Excise VAT Headquarters moved from Southend with up to 1,100 jobs. There are now 90 businesses employing just under 1,000people. As you can see there are wide ranges of facilities attracting all types of people to the area-‘yuppies’, families, the elderly and young people as you can see in the pictures of crowds above.
I think the trend in the Albert Docks is, you need to spend money to make money. Even though the Albert Docks took 6 years to revive and i?? 60 million it has bought people back to the city centre of Liverpool, but not just one type of person, many types. When people are bought back by one thing, it encourages other investment and more regeneration schemes to happen. These are two population graphs of Liverpool and I am using them to show why Liverpool needs regeneration schemes and how regeneration schemes have effected the population of the suburbs since they have been done.
The first graph shows the population growth and decline in Liverpool over 100 years. As you can see between 1890 and 1940 there is rapid growth because of the industrial revolution and the working of the docks. However, once the docks started to decline after 1940 there has been a population decrease and workers were moving out of the city to find new jobs. The docks closed because the port was on the wrong side of the country for trade and large ships could no longer fit into the docking areas. As more and more people moved, more houses became into disrepair.
This is why Liverpool needs regeneration schemes, to bring new people back into the city boundaries and the centre. The second graph tells us that this has been happening. Even though it shows that the population in the city centre has fallen since 1951, the suburbs have grown. This could be for two reasons, more people moving from the city centre to the suburbs and also the regenerations schemes that have been happening. For example, The Eldonian Village. Before the restoration of this land the area was suffering from poor housing conditions and environment, lack of social facilities and large unemployment because of major factories closing.
In 1978 the local people were threatened with relocation, however, they formed an action group because they were determined to stay in the area. They argued that the former Tate & Lyle sugar refinery site would be ideal to build a ‘new village’. Architects were hired and finally persuaded the City Council to allow the development to go ahead. This is called ‘A Bottom-up Approach’. The end result for The Eldonian Village was 145 homes-for rent only, it was the largest new built co-operative in Europe, mixture of homes 1, 2 and 3 bed bungalows and houses with between 2 and 4 beds.
There were many extra facilities in the grounds, a village hall, sports centre, office development, no isolated pathways, secure fence around the perimeter, training provision determined by the clearly stated needs of new local employers and gardening centre “Green City”-provides some employment for village residents. By looking at the graph of primary data for the Eldonians (page 5) the environmental quality is 84/100 showing in my point of view that it is a pleasant place to live. This entire bought people back to the city and making additional projects like this one to go ahead.
This project happened in Toxteth in 1990. It was a sixty-acre site half a mile east of the Cathedral that used to be rubbish-strewn streets, boarded-up blacks and contaminated rail sidings. The whole area was developed by a group of partners including; Central Government, Liverpool University and Liverpool Health Authority. What this achieved was a new Hall of Residence for Liverpool Uni, new hospital for mothers and babies, more than 250 houses including 78 private homes, Renshaws cake-decoration manufacturer employing 200 people.
About 2,000jobs are being retained or created in services, manufacturing and construction. All this brings in new families for work and more money to provide the area with more facilities. During the construction a rule was that all site contractors employ 25% local labour even if it means providing training. Making around the CBD and the CBD itself more desirable brings people back into the city, especially if there are hospitals and low cost housing for families. Also all the regeneration needs people to do jobs, so it also brings skills into the area making the whole thing a success.
Conclusion and Evaluation My original aims were to find out how successful the regeneration projects were in Liverpool. The key questions that I tried to answer throughout my study were: What Regeneration schemes are there? Why does Liverpool need regeneration schemes? What have they done to regenerate the Albert Docks-How has it succeeded? What I have achieved and found out is that they regeneration projects have made a difference to Liverpool. Most of the work that has been happening has happened around the city centre because that’s where people are mostly drawn.
They have planned them very well because not only have they bought new people into the area, raising the decreasing population levels, they have made the old residence an improved and a better quality of life for them. The problems before the schemes were very noticeable. High unemployment, poor quality housing, lack of money for the city, out migration, derelict land (especially around the dock area) and not attracting new people. The first major project was to renovate the Albert Docks, even if it did cost a lot of money! However, even though it did, it will be paid back by the facilities it provides for all types of people.
There are expensive flats, which bring the upper and middle classes back into the area, shops and museums for tourists. All this brings money back into the city for better improvements and services and over all a better quality of life. Both the cathedral/Project Rosemary and Eldonians was a ‘bottom -up’ approach where the people decided what would happen to the land and what facilities they would like. This is lower cost housing that helps new families coming into the area and also the elderly. All these improvements and planning take time and money, but they also bring jobs into the city.
The construction of Project Rosemary had to take 25% local labour, even if they weren’t trained for the job, the company trained them. This is a good idea because of the high unemployment rate that is in Liverpool. Even though the graphs on the previous pages says that the population is still low, with all these improvements that the city and the people have made together it must start growing soon. I think a must for the city to do is to work together with the people and planners to find the best solutions for each part of the city.
As you can tell in the Eldonian Village this has worked very well, but they did have to fight for their right to plan their own way. However, the success of the Eldonian villages shows that it can be done. In the future I think a lot more regeneration projects will happen within the city boundary. Making more room for new families and more accessibility for the elderly but also helping the original residence. Safety is a big issue when you are in a city especially when you have younger children. In every new regeneration project, especially in housing, that would be a very big situation to point out.
For example the secure fence around the Eldonian village, it makes people feel safe. Also the lay out of the housing so there aren’t any dark alleyways but everyone keeps an eye on each other like a community. I think the next project that will go ahead will be in Speke. It is an out of town housing estate in much need of repair as there is crime and bad quality of life. It has already started with a new community school. As it’s a place where teenagers are, it would be a good idea for a sport hall where they could get interested in something or a pool hall where they are not out on the streets causing trouble and damage.
The limitations of my study was that I couldn’t find about the population closer to this time as it would have been helpful to prove that the population had been rising over the last couple of years. Also detailed census data would have been useful for 100 years go and now. I could then compare population density, housing number and amenities people would have in their homes (QofL). I would have also liked to have talked to the people from the Eldonian Village to see how they had to fight for what they wanted and also how they decided what facilities to have.
I could have found out more if I had gone to Liverpool City Council to find out records about the regeneration projects and also about what conditions were like in the industrial revolution time. Also what regeneration projects were next for the city. If I could change it to make it different I would have found more about the Albert Docks, I would have also maybe compared to another similar city that has not had regeneration projects to compare the two.
Bibliography http://www. multimap. com http://www. publicpurpose. com New College Intranet.