If ethical issues that would investigating said question

If isolated, would babies develop their own language?Candidate Name: Abdul Muiz Bin Abd HalimCandidate Number: 4002Supervisor Name:Coordinator Name:Abstract This report aims to answer the following question “If isolated, would babies develop their own language?”. In it I have included both primary and secondary research to enable a complete understanding of the topic. This project will give me a better insight into how humans learn; I believe understanding this to be important as it may ultimately provide the answers to some of society’s greatest problems. To give a few examples, learning disorders, mental health disorders and even criminal activity.  This report concludes that if isolated, babies would be able to develop their own language. However, such a language would bear great differences to the languages we know today. IntroductionThe intended meaning of this question is that if multiple babies were left together and prohibited from interactions with other humans from birth until adulthood, would they develop their own language? I understand that a strong nature vs nurture debate underpins the question “If isolated would babies develop their own language?”. It is already known that both biological factors and environmental factors influence an individual’s learning and so I aim for this report to establish the extent to which these factors play a role. Simply, this question can only be answered hypothetically for obvious ethical implications would prevent an experiment being conducted. Ethics refers to the principles about how someone should behave relating to morality in society. Therefore the ethical issues that would investigating said question practically include ________.Before going any further I will now provide a definition for the following terms. I feel it is important to do so as it prevents miscommunication between myself and the reader. Communication is exchanging and understanding information and feelings. Babies are defined as very young children. In my report I will be using babies of the age of 0 (as soon as they are born).Isolation is when being separated from other persons or things. In the context of this report isolation is when the subjects (babies) that are going through this experiment are completely forbidden to have any contact or communication with external humans. They will still have normal lives and be taken care of by caretakers but these caretakers are forbidden to have any form of language with them. Learning is the knowledge acquired by systematic study in any field of scholarly application. It can also be defined as the act or process of acquiring knowledge or skill. However in psychology learning is defined as the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience. I believe this definition will be the most appropriate linking to my report.Learning In More Detail Learning is often defined as a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience. When you think of learning, it might be easy to fall into the trap of only considering formal education that takes place during childhood and early adulthood, but learning is actually an ongoing process that takes place throughout all of life.How do we go from not knowing something to acquiring information, knowledge, and skills? Learning became a major focus of study in psychology during the early part of the twentieth century as behaviorism rose to become a major school of thought. Today, learning remains an important concept in numerous areas of psychology, including cognitive, educational, social, and developmental psychology. One important thing to remember is that learning can involve both beneficial and negative behaviors. Learning is a natural and ongoing part of life that takes place continually, both for better and for worse. Sometimes people learn things that help them become more knowledgeable and lead better lives. In other instances, people can learn things that are detrimental to their overall health and well-being.How does learning occur? The process of learning new things is not always the same. Learning can happen in a wide variety of ways. To explain how and when learning occurs, a number of different psychological theories have been proposed.Learning through classical conditioning Learning through association is one of the most fundamental ways that people learn new things. Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered one method of learning during his experiments on the digestive systems of dogs. He noted that the dogs would naturally salivate at the sight of food, but that eventually the dogs also began to salivate whenever they spotted the experimenter’s white lab coat.Later experiments involve pairing the sight of food with the sound of a bell tone. After multiple pairings, the dogs eventually began to salivate to the sound of the bell alone.This type of learning is known as classical conditioning. It takes place through the formation of associations. A neutral stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response is paired with a neutral stimulus. Eventually, an association forms and the previously neutral stimulus becomes known as a conditioned stimulus that then triggers a conditioned response. Learning through operant conditioning The consequences of your actions can also play a role in determining how and what you learn. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner noted that while classical conditioning could be used to explain some types of learning, it could not account for everything. Instead, he suggested that reinforcements and punishments were responsible for some types of learning. When something immediately follows a behavior, it can either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future. This process is referred to as operant conditioning. For example, imagine that you just got a new puppy, and you would like to begin training it to behave in specific ways.Whenever the puppy does what you want it to do, you reward it with a small treat or a gentle pat. When the puppy misbehaves, you scold him and do not offer affection. Eventually, the reinforcement leads to an increase in the desired behaviors and a decrease in the unwanted behaviors. Learning through observation  While classical conditioning and operant conditioning can help explain many instances of learning, you can probably immediately think of situations where you have learned something without being conditioned, reinforced or punished. Psychologist Albert Bandura noted that many types of learning do not involve any conditioning and in fact, evidence that learning has occurred might not even be immediately apparent.Observational learning occurs by observing the actions and consequences of other people’s behavior. In a series of famous experiments, Bandura was able to demonstrate the power of this observational learning. Children watched video clips of adults interacting with a large, inflatable Bobo doll. In some instances, the adults simply ignored the doll, while in other clips the adults would hit, kick and yell at the doll.When kids were later given the chance to play within a room with a Bobo doll present, those who had observed the adults abusing the doll were more likely to engage in similar actions.As you can see, learning is a complex process that involves multiple factors. Psychologists today not only study how learning occurs but also how social, emotional, cultural, and biological variables might influence the learning process.Language I believe in order to answer the question “If isolated would babies develop their own language?” it is equally important to understand what language is and how exactly it works. Language can be defined as a structured system of sound patterns that we know are called words and sentences; these sounds have a socially standardised meaning.  It provides a set of symbols that catalogues the objects, events and processes in the human environment (De Vito, 1970). Jean Aitchison (1983) suggested four key characteristics of human language. These features are as follows. Firstly, semanticity. This refers to the use of words or symbols to represent objects of actions that are understood by others. Secondly displacement surrounds the idea that language must be able to discuss what is not present. That is, past and future events. Another characteristic of language is structure dependence; this is the rules and patterns of language and emphasizes the idea that words must be put in a correct order for them to make sense. Aitchison’s last characteristic of language is productivity. Productivity is being able to produce a new sentence of use words that someone else can understand.In summary, the simple definition that will be used for language throughout this report is as follows: language is symbols (words or signs) that others understand and use to communicate with. Critical period hypothesisLinguistic hierarchy Language Acquisition This section aims to understand fully how an individual acquires a language. In relation to this report this is important because it may highlight certain patterns which show environmental factors or biological factors needed by babies to learn a language. The nativist theory Interactionist theoryLanguage in animals Given the abundance of ethical issues that are concerned with conducting experiments on humans, animals have often been employed in place of humans. These studies bear great significance to this report because they illustrate the effect of isolation on learning. Gardner 1989 Sue Savage – Rumah experiment Whilst experiments and therefore conclusions drawn from animal based experiments are of huge importance, the findings cannot be directly transferred to humans. This is true given the differences between humans and animals. Page 259 Textbook There are also differences in the physical features. Within the human brain there is an area known as the Broca’s area, this is used in speech. However, Preuss (2000) claimed that an equivalent area in the brain of animals controlled non-verbal mouth movement and arm movements. Another difference between animals and humans regard the vocal areas. Apes and chimpanzees are limited in the sounds they are able to make in comparison to humans. This is true despite 98% of DNA in human genes being identically to that of chimpanzees. It is the differences explained above that mean it would be invalid to directly compare animals and humans. Not only this, but whilst the ethical impacts on animals seem minimal in comparison to humans, they must still be considered. The relationship between language and thoughtUnderstanding the relationship between language and thought is important to this report, as it once again provides evidence as to how individuals, including babies, learn languages. The relationship between language and thought can be argued from three different perspectives. Firstly, we can say that language has to come before thought as we need a word for something in order to think about it. Alternatively, we can say thought has to come before language as we cannot learn to use words unless we can think about the objects. Lastly, one could claim that language and thought are separate and it is only through child development that they come together. Piaget (1950) proposed the theory of cognitive development. Cognitive development refers to the way on which children develop their thinking abilities. The theory explains that children’s thinking develops in stages through building images of the world. Representational thinking is mental processing about objects as things in the world. The understanding of objects as ‘things’ in the world (representational thinking) comes before naming the objects (language). The stages of Piaget’s cognitive development theory are as follows:The sensorimotor stage is that from the birth of the child to they are 2 years old. During this  stage, the baby has inborn responses known as reflexes. The child also begins to develop more complex movements and thinking. In addition, the infant develops schemas to make sense of the world, changing them as needed in order to build thinking. For much of this stage the infant does not show language, suggesting that thought comes before language. The stage that comes next is pre-operational thinking (2 – 7 years old), the child builds on their use of mental imagery and develops their use of symbols for objects. Symbols include using words for objects – this is language. In this way Piaget’s theory highlights the fact that thinking develops first to include understanding that objects exist in the world. Then the child develops the use of words for objects, and language follows. In order to establish how reliable Piaget’s theory is I will now be evaluating it – looking at the theories strengths and weaknesses. Firstly, other theories and studies are in support of Piaget’s conclusion. For example, some studies have shown that very young infants can imitate some adult actions (Shaun Gallagher and Andrew Meltzoff 1996). Jane Lymer (2014) argues that she too has found self awareness in babies. This all suggests that self-awareness in infants can be viewed as thought, coming before language and so supports Piaget’s theory. On the other hand, Jones (2006) has argued that such imitated actions are actually reflexive and not done through self-awareness. This suggests that researching with very young children means there will be difficulties obtaining valid data. Problems with getting hold of evidence in support of Piaget’s theory can be written off as a weakness.How does Piaget’s theory of cognitive development impact this report?VygotskyTheories of child learning and development Maternal deprivation theory bowlbyattachment theoryMontessori Method – MontessoriSeparation – Individuation Theory of Child development Language deprivation theories:What are language deprivation theories?Poto and CabengoJune and Jennifer GibbonThe human brain and speech The Broca’s area in the brain. Conclusion