If v. Hatmann (1975), demonstrate this quite well.

If you had about 6 months or less to live would you ask for help trying to kill yourself? Well going through a Physician Assisted-Suicide (PAS) process is exactly what it is. Yes, trained physicians help you fasten and advance your death if you’re terminally ill and have 6 months or left to live. Majority of you probably wasn’t aware of what it was and I don’t blame you. PAS is only legal in about 6 states throughout the whole US. Surprisingly the results of taking the choice for assisted suicide has both a positive and negative impact on family members based on grief and how family members are coping.    PAS was first introduced back in 500 B.C with the Ancient Greeks and the Romans. PAS was introduced in 500 B.C. A lot of ancient Greeks and Romans had no belief in the value of individual human life, and physicians performed frequent abortions as well as both voluntary and involuntary killings. Although the Hippocratic Oath prohibited doctors from giving ‘a deadly drug to anybody, not even if asked for,’ or from suggesting such a course of action, few ancient Greek or Roman physicians followed the oath faithfully.’ Many people feel as if people in the medical profession play “god” on operating tables and in recovery rooms too often. People still try to decide if doctors should be allowed to decide who lives and who dies. After the era of 500 B.C, during the nineteenth century people used (PAS) as a way to speed up the process of dying and the “destruction of useless lives.” Today it is known as the “deliberate ending of a person suffering from an incurable disease (Dowbiggin, PhD A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America, 2003).” Tolerance of PAS is not restricted to our own country. “A court case in South Africa, s. v. Hatmann (1975), demonstrate this quite well. A medical practitioner, seeing his eighty-seven year old father suffering from terminal cancer of the prostate, injected an overdose of Morphine and Thiopental, causing his father’s death within seconds. The court charged the practitioner as guilty of murder because ‘the law is clear that it nonetheless constitutes the crime of murder, even if all that an accused had done is to hasten the death of a human being who was due to die in any event’. In spite of this charge, the court simply took advantage and demanded a lesser sentence; that is, imprisonment until the rising of the court (Argument Against Euthanasia, Friedman 246).”   Six States legalized Physician-Assisted Suicide by legislation.  One state legalized it through court ruling. This is important because it shows you that a vast majority of the states have Physician-Assisted Suicide illegal. This shows that majority of the states do not accept PAS as a legal action. This helps me build up my essential question because when you start to read these tables and facts you soon to become curious why most the states do not support this action at all (States in DC have legalized PAS, 32). The second judicial judge ruled that physicians who helped incurable patients end their lives could not be prosecuted. PAS clearly has a protocol to its doing. You cannot perform PAS under ANY circumstances, it is very limited.. But that still does not justify the wrongful doing. California, Colorado, DC, Montana, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington have a couple of requirements. They require proof of residency, you have to be at least 18 years old, have to have a minimum of 6 or less months to live, and there has to be two oral and one written request from a PAS (6 states with legal PAS, Table). The PAS must be licensed in the same state as the patient and have a current United States Drug Enforcement Administration certificate. The PAS diagnosis must include an illness where they have six months or less to live. If the PAS claims that the patient’s judgment is broken, the patient must be referred for a psychological examination. If a physician think a patient is wrong, they must conceive a psychological examination. Patients know there is a 15 day waiting period.PAS had its dates passed from as early as 1994, and as recent as 2016 (Table, 6 states and dates passed, 2015). In all 44 states that PAS in not legal, it is considered a crime. The list goes on for the classification of it all. The illegal states consider it a crime or a degree of punishment. Some states consider it as “Class A felony, manslaughter, second degree manslaughter, second degree felony, felony, class 2 felony, class 4 felony, class 3 felony, or class A misdemeanor, class B felony, class C felony, person felony, a fine up to 10,000, class D crime, First or second degree murder, Up to 15 years in prison and/or a fine up to $30,000 if suicide results; up to seven years in prison and/or a fine up to $14,000 if attempted suicide results, Voluntary manslaughter, Class IV felony, Injunction and professional discipline, and Liable for damages and possible cease and desist order (degree of punishment where PAS is illegal, table).””Assisted Suicide is Wrong”. “It is morally wrong and unacceptable to take a human life in order to relieve the suffering caused by incurable illness (Argument Against Euthanasia,7).” This would include the intentional shortening of another person’s life by the use of a lethal dose of medication or poison, the use of lethal weapons, homicidal acts, and other forms of active assisted suicide. There is a clear difference that needs to be drawn between providing someone unconscious the risk of killing them, and killing them to provide him to become unconscious.  “Social Impact”. “Allowing assisted suicide would create “a reduction of respect for all human life, especially of the marginalized and those who may be regarded as ‘unproductive’ members of society (Argument Against Euthanasia,8).” The bishops also expressed concern about the terminally ill and how their lives seem less of a  value because people want to take it away so early- consensually or not. There was even some cases where PAS was never requested. “Abandonment of Hope”. Every doctor can tell a story of a patient that was expected to die within days and surprised everyone with their recoveries. Every doctor has experienced the embarrassment of being proved wrong. Therefore there should be no excuse to why doctors shouldn’t be trying their hardest to attempt to try to make a patient recover (Argument Against Euthanasia,9). There’s this story of a blind teenager who had a brain tumour and intentionally only had a couple of weeks to live. The story of the blind teenager, with a brain tumor didn’t have much time to live.  In February, doctors argued that the 18-year-old had no more than two weeks to live and even during the treatment of chemotherapy and brain surgery it still would be impossible. If his heart were to stop beating, he should not be revived. The courts authorised the hospital to discontinue treatment against his parents’ wishes. But the teenager is still alive, more than three months later. His mother says: “I am fighting for my child’s life. He is a sick child, but he is coping. He is not dying.” It’s difficult to predict exactly when a patient is going to die, or, sometimes, if they are going to die at all.  The convicted Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, diagnosed with prostate cancer, was freed on compassionate grounds after doctors predicted he had less than three months to live. Megrahi died two years and nine months after his release (British Medical Journal, 2015). “Dangers of Societal Acceptance.” We can’t forget that doctors, and nurses, have personal lives, homes and families, or that they are something more than just doctors, and nurses. They are citizens and a significant part of the society evolve around them. We should be very worried about what PAS will do to society, and in general. How will we pay attention to actual murderers? (Argument Against Euthanasia,12) “Costs and Benefits.” Perhaps the most risky thing of all is the growing concern over medical costs. PAS is, after all, very cheap. People would take advantage a=of the fact that PAS is cheap.  The cost of a dose, and the few hours in a hospital bed that it takes them to act is a minute compared to the massive bills incurred by many patients in the last weeks and months of their lives (Argument Against Euthanasia,16). Legalizing PAS would save substantial financial resources which could be distracted to more “useful” treatments. These economic concerns already exert pressure to accept PAS, and, if accepted, they will automatically tend to enlarge the category of patients for whom PAS is given to. “Do not tolerate killing”. Now is the time for the medical profession to rally in defense of its fundamental moral principles, to repudiate any and all acts of direct and intentional killing by physicians and their agents. We call on the profession and its leadership to obtain the best advice, regarding both theory and practice, about how to defend the profession’s moral center and to resist growing pressures both from without and from within. We call on fellow physicians to say that we will not deliberately kill. We must say also to each of our fellow physicians that we will not tolerate killing of patients and that we shall take disciplinary action against doctors who kill (Argument Against Euthanasia,17,(Chapman 209).Today, medical hardware is so advanced that the amount of time you spend suffering can be extended beyond the human tolerance level. Some may believe that physicians may take advantage of the hardware to perform assisted suicide. I discovered that families are more likely to feel pain and feel bad when their relatives are rejected PAS. No family should feel like there is no hope due to denial for their terminally ill family member because physicians has implemented that idea in their heads. There was this story where this man who loved the fact that he knew when his terminally ill wife was going to die. He was happy they prepared for it and had time to say their good bye’s and move on. “…He approved painful medical treatment to prolong her life. He later told me that he regretted it.” Some families do regret giving approval to medical treatment (“A fundamental human right” (Williams, 2017, par. 10)).” Even agreeing and going through the process of PAS, families still feel bad and full of regret after they go through the whole thing. Don’t let doctors fool you and make it seem like it’s the only way to go. Theres way too much new technology to at least give a person a couple more months to live. “PAS, is an inaccurate, inappropriate, and biased phrase which opponents often use to scare people about Death with Dignity laws. Because the person is in the process of dying and seeking the option to hasten an already inevitable and imminent death, the request to hasten a death isn’t equated with suicide. They’re participating in an act to shorten the agony of their final hours, not killing themselves; cancer (or another common underlying condition) is killing them (Adapted from American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine on: Death with Dignity, Physician-Assisted Death/Dying. The American Public Health Association, review of articles. Retrieved from https://www.deathwithdignity.org/terminology/#dwd).” Over time they have tried to change the term to be less scarier for the people who are terminally ill. Physicians have started changing the meaning of terms to help people make a decision which is more lenient to the PAS side. If physicians had to change the terms it shows that obviously families weren’t okay and they were scared of the whole method based of hearing it. Families had thought of PAS as a negative conception until the terminology started being changed around. “A few months ago, Aschmoneit decided to take his own life as his symptoms got worse. The only way to feel better, he says, was “to say goodbye before it was too late (“Accompanies German Patient To His Death” (Mckay, Jayne-Mary, 2003, Page 1/Par. 3/Section 1).” Some families do not cope well. Pressuring them into thinking PAS is the only option to be saved, causes them to panic and react, and in this case this patient panicked and committed suicide. Again, PAS is creating a negative effect with families.  “In this office,” he says, “many people said, ‘I’m totally depressed; I want to end my life’ and weeks later this opinion was changed.” Do people really want PAS legalized (“Accompanies German Patient To His Death” (Mckay, Jayne-Mary, 2003, Page 1/Par. 12/Section 1)? People think they may want to go through the PAS process but when they actually think about it, they start to think negative. Physicians who are pressing patients to think about it need to stop because most the time when PAS has been done is because patients feel no hope. DO people really find satisfaction in Assisted-Suicide? Or do they do it because physicians are putting pressure, it’s less money, and less time being “wasted”? At least 18 states across the country are considering whether to allow PAS. But legalizing PAS would be a huge mistake. You would expect doctors to do no harm and ease the pain of the ones who suffer and support the families and ministries by providing that type care. There’s this oath in medical called “The Hippocratic Oath.” It is one of the most known of Greek medical texts. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by a number of healing gods, to uphold specific ethical standards. The Hippocratic Oath says “I will keep the sick from harm and injustice. I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect.” No one, especially a doctor, should be given permission to kill intentionally, or assist in killing intentionally (News week, Ryan T. Anderson, 2015, Page 1/Par. 5/Section 1). Legalizing PAS is Endangering the weak and vulnerable, it’s Changing the practice of medicine and the doctor patient relationship, it is also betraying the human dignity and equality before the law. Some families even think that doctors should help their patients die a dignified death by having natural causes, and not by helping them kill themselves.While reading an article on how people felt dealing with PAS and a family member they came up with 30 reasons on why they feel as if PAS should continue to be illegal. “Some terminally ill people recover and get well.” There was a story of a young lady only having 3 months left to live. Five years later she is sti alive, she’s a mother of a child. Families never want to feel regret. How many people chose PAS and probably could’ve had more time to live? Think about it. Offering them suicide is taking everything away from them. You’re taking away hope, and you’re taking away their lives. “Doctors make mistakes in medical care.” Back in November 2008, the Mississippi Supreme Court upheld a $4 million award to the family who had a member that was misdiagnosed with cancer and then was given a lethal dose of painkillers.The 66-year-old woman had received massive doses of painkillers for cancer, which later than an autopsy showed she never had. “That’s just this week’s news. It happens all the time.” SO, doesn’t this make you wonder how many times doctors had made an accidental “mistake?” Now that family was HURT because of making the wrong decisions. A mistake like this should not be happening all the time. “You already have control over your final illness.” People are choosing the option of PAS because they want to control when they die. Little do they know that they already have control of their dying process. You already can kill yourself any given time you want. You’re able to refuse any medical treatment whenever you want. You can tell your nurses who you want in and out your room, if you happen to want control over who sees you when you’re sick. You already have control, and you don’t even need assisted suicide. “Assisted suicide laws give more power to the government, not the individual.” People may think they’re gaining a new right but passing this law when in reality they’re just giving the government more power, which is being interfered with the medical field. “You already have the power to commit suicide at any time. But if you sign a paper agreeing to have your doctor do it for you, you are turning over your power to someone else (Logical reasons against PAS, Jane St. Clair, 2008, Par. 31/Page 1/ Section 5).” In other cases, remain having your power and ability to commit suicide, than handing your power over to someone else. “You are creating a mechanism for the government and medical people to enter into decisions as to who lives and who dies (Logical reasons against PAS, Jane St. Clair, 2008, Par. 34/Page 1/ Section 6).” You trying to get your rights and trying to help pass on the law is taking away the power everyone has individually.  “Assisted suicide laws put pressure on dying people to end their lives.” “One hospice nurse told me that he has seen families fight over estates and money even as their relative lay dying and could listen to them. The attitude was: Please get this over so we can get our inheritance (Logical reasons against PAS, Jane St. Clair, 2008, Par. 37/Page 1/ Section 7).”In conclusion, PAS is a source that people are trying to fight for to be legal not realizing they are being stripped of power as an individual. Families think PAS sounds nice but is full of regret when the time comes. Families aren’t aware of the possibilities of being terminally ill. Doctors are sometimes wrong, and you agreeing to assisted suicide is not doing nothing but bringing negativity. Families are hurting and having long term grief with going through the process of assisted suicide. If someone is terminally ill and has less than 6 months to live, let them die naturally if they do. DO not request an assisted suicide. Don’t let your family member go through it no matter how much pain they’re in. If someone is possible to recover from chemo cancer than all is possible. You don’t need to be religious to have hope. Stay strong and have faith.