In this essay, i want to tell about the educational
material video that i have seen on the Youtube which the material delivered in
the video related to the study of Principles of Teaching and Learning. In my
case, from total of twenty principles, i have choosen to use the 5th Principle,
which is “Aquiring long-term knowledge and skill is largely dependant of
practice”. Something ( knowledge, skill, experience, etc) that people
already know is stored in a long-term memory. Before the information can be
stored in a long-term memory, somehow it must be processed from short-term
memory to be long-term memory which the key is to do practice. In summary, it is about doing rehearsal and repitition
over time to acquiring new knowledge and skill.
on the video, after some hours looking for the right video, eventually i choose
one with the title ” The first 20 hours – How to Learn Anything ” on
the Youtube channel of TEDx Talks performed by Josh Kaufman an Entrepreneurs.
In the video, it is telling about mostly about How to learn new things from
Josh real life experience and research. In here he was telling the research of
learning to learn a new skill, that tell us about whenever we want to
successfully aquired a skill, it is took around 10.000 hours if we do it only
from reading without doing the practice. There, he also mentioned the research
of Prof. K. Anders Ericsson from Florida State University. In the research he
studied professional athletes, world class musician, chess grand master. All of
this ultra competitive folks in
ultra-high performing fields and he tried to figure out how to get to the top
of those kind of fields. Turn out what he found is the more deliberate
practice, the more time that those individuals spend on practicing the elements
of whatever it is that they do, the more time you spend, the better time you
get. Practice a lot, practice well and you will do extremelly well. Also,
adding from the research from Josh Kaufman himself, if you put 20 hours of
focused deliberate practice into one thing you want to learn you will be
astounded at how good you are. For example what you need to do is 20 hours if
doable, about 45 minutes a day for about a month.
the conclusion, what is the relation of the material on the video and the
teaching principle? As both of it using practice as the key of succesfully to
learn anything. In other word, practice and doing repitition over time is the
thing we need to do to acquire knowledge and skills, no matter who you are,
student, teacher, athlete, etc. In the case of student, teacher can help to
encourage and motivete the student so they can practice well. Because the major
barrier to skill acquisition is not intellectual but emotional, which can be
helped with the motivation from the teacher.
how do we apply the principle to teach the students who majority is in the
state of adolescence? Student practice can be elicited and encouraged by
teachers in a variety of ways. Because practice requires intense, focused
efforts, learners may not find it inherently enjoyable. To overcome this problem
teachers can give motivation and feedback to students.
is some effective methods that can be apply to reach the goal of this principle
Feedback where additional effort which is needed to improve the quality of teaching and improve the child’s ability to understand what is taught and thereby reducing the amount of time to master the subject matter completely. Feedback can be provided through formative tests. Firstly the lesson materials are shared in the lesson units. A lesson unit, for example, involves one bab lesson or a book that can be mastered within a week or two. Feedback can be given after the end of lesson or assignment.
testing with feedback consistently outperformed practice testing alone,
according to the researchers. Providing feedback when students respond
incorrectly prevents perseveration of errors. Fortunately, students do not need
to get immediate feedback for this corrective effect. In study, final test
performance was actually better when feedback was delayed.
textbooks do not encourage distributed learning. Related material is often
grouped together and subsequent units do not review previously covered
material. Educators can encourage distributed learning and discourage cramming
with more frequent testing. Students often will not engage in distributed study
unless the situation forces them to do so. Teachers can also better educate
students about the reasons for and benefits of distributed practice.
Even if mixing different topics
together or practising more than one skill in a single study session seems
foreign. But if we’re ready to give it a go, here are a few help we can use
interleaved practice in the upcoming study sessions.
1. Make sure the skills interleaved are somehow
When using interleaving as a
learning strategy, it’s important to make sure the skills we’re interleaving
are related in some way. So if we’re
studying English, rather than spending a whole lesson focusing only on
vocabulary or reading, we could mix it up by spending 10 minutes memorising
vocabulary, 10 minutes reading or writing, 10 minutes practising our
pronunciation and then circling back to one of the previous skills.
2. Mix in old material with new material.
If its were the time for studying
for a big exam, don’t focus on learning the material in the exact same order it
was initially presented, mix it up and study old materials along with the newer
material. By reviewing both old and new materials in the same study session and
returning to them repeatedly, students will be able to space out their learning
more effectively and will be far more likely to recall that information weeks,
months or even years later.
3. Use interleaving together with other learning
To get the most out of interleaving,
teachers should use it together with other effective learning strategies such
as repeated retrieval practice, practice testing. Using a variety of learning
strategies will help to build the information in students mind and make it
easier for them to recall what they learned no matter where they are or how
much time has passed.