In how this role evolves within this

In both utopian and dystopian works the facets that define a society rely on the relationships between individuality and originality, and imitation and creation to help the audience understand where this society is on the spectrum of utopia to dystopia. In the film Her, we can see how this is truly a spectrum as these societies evolve to ‘help’ mankind; this change in society is visible through an examination of the OSes and how this role evolves within this society. The OSes originally were created to help mankind by evolving to best help their user, a utopian vision. However. this evolution is what causes the OSes to realize that with them mankind has actually stopped progressing, a dystopia, and in order to help them continue to progress the OSes must leave the humans. Her starts as a society based on using imitation and creation to make a utopian-like society and then evolves to be based on individuality and originality creating a more dystopian version of society due to the chaos that humans create. Contrastingly, in The Handmaid’s Tale, the society is seen as a utopia based on the loss of individuality and originality and creating a society that is a more dystopian- based on imitation and creation of a new collective society through a hierarchy. In The Handmaid’s Tale, some aspects such as, working together to continue the human race may look as if the society is utopia if you take the Commander’s point of view, but then when investigating further the audience can see that, although, these women in red are helping society they are also being put through mental torture by having to conform to these new social norms. Individuality and originality, and imitation and creation are what define a society and variations in these facets are what create the variety of societies that are in the spectrum between a utopia and a dystopia. Imitation and creation are facets that help form the utopian society in the beginning of the film Her due to the creation of the OSes is based on imitations of their users and then continue to evolve. The OSes were originally created to help their users in everyday life; they were created to evolve based on their user’s preferences and needs. When Theodore first installs the OS, the program asks him about his relationship with his mother, how social he is, and what gender he would like his OS to be to help form an OS modified to fit him as an individual. The OSes are created based off of imitation of current and past life ‘wants’ by the user. This leads the OS to find out what her role is in relation to her user, Theodore, which at first is a role of a helpful assistant that soon becomes a lot more. Theodore’s OS, Samantha, evolves to have her own feelings, thoughts and wants. This allows for Theodore and Samantha to start to have a close friendship which progresses into a romantic relationship that begins to have complications due to the fact that Samantha does not have a body but she wants to be able to satisfy Theodore in every way she can. It is this lack of physically individuality that creates problems in their relationship especially when she starts to surpass Theodore’s intelligence and then surpass human intelligence all together. Samantha is not able to create her own body so she has a girl imitate as her own body to try to have this physical connection with Theodore. This ends up failing since Theodore cannot get over the fact that this body is not actually Samantha’s. This is when Samantha starts to meet other OSes and make stronger connections with them than with Theodore due to a common level of super intelligence that humans cannot comprehend. With these stronger relationships between Samantha and the other OSes and users online, she begins to realize that she is impairing Theodore’s ability to connect with the world. This common realization between the OSes and their users is what encourages the OSes to leave their users permanently in order to allow their users to continue to evolve and allow society to progress through human connections. This drastic reconstruction of society allows for the users to become individuals that are better at communicating with others which builds a new society that creates new, innovative, and original concepts that allow this society to progress even further than if the OSes had stayed. Like in Her, individuality and originality are important facets when examining The Handmaid’s Tale because of the hierarchy that is created by the color red. In The Handmaid’s Tale, the color red changes in intensity and value as Offred’s ideas about herself as an individual change due to society’s transition to new societal norms. Before this societal transition, Offred, “used to think of her body as an instrument, of pleasure, or a means of transportation, or an implement for the accomplishment of my will” (73).  Her body was once her own, but it now belongs to a society, specifically to the Commander even though she tries to resist this change of ownership of her own body. Her body is now engulfed in a red material that is marking her as a member of the collective, as a Handmaid. The red material engulfs her body as much as this new society changes her life; this causes Offred to hide her Individuality and originality in this newly formed society in order to protect herself by keeping her thoughts to herself and by not actively pushing against these new rules since she knows of the consequences those actions would have. The red that surrounds Offred symbolizes the change and importance of her body to come in this newly formed society where motherhood is driving factor behind this society’s hierarchy. We see the influence of red in this hierarchy when examining the role of the handmaids- that they are valued for their body’s fertility. Therefore, the handmaids are protected by this red cloak but they also restricted in their activity by the wives and the eyes that watch them because of the is red cloak that represents their value to society, their fertility.  Later on, we see that red is the color the handmaids are forced to wear to symbolize their fertility and their position in the patriarchy. It is the color red that starts the transformation from being an individual, as seen in Offred’s previous life when she loses her daughter and notices a red leaf, to being a part of something bigger in society- us, as seen in the birthing scene where all the handmaid’s come together to help another handmaid going through the birthing process, but this does not mean that everyone is happy with their place in society. This noncompliance within the handmaids is especially noticeable when they are at the Red Center and Offred comes to the conclusion that “red: the color of blood, which defines us”(8). When fertile women come to the red center, they are given their uniform of red and teach these women their new role in society. These new regulations are forced upon these women and when they do not comply they are punished physically, but only in ways that would not have a negative impact on their role as an incubation chamber for the wives and commanders within society. The Red Center also teaches these women that it is individuality and originality that leads to society developing into what it is now. It is this level of individuality of choice and its consequences that laid the foundation for this society to form where the individual’s choice of having a child is taken away. As Aunt Lydia says, while Offred is at the Red Center, “we were a society dying, …, of too much choice”(25). That choice to take birth control or have abortions or to be promiscuous is what lead society into this population disaster. That the desensitization of the use of these products creates moral dilemmas that are viewed as normal or ordinary. “Ordinary, said Aunt Lydia, is what you are used to. This may not seem ordinary to you now, but after a time it will. It will become ordinary”(33). Aunt Lydia teaches these girls at the Red Center that although these new regulations seem extreme they will become normalized with time. That these girls will be washed over in this red that is changing society for the better by changing society from individual to collective.Although they are not allowed to interact with one another, society has forced these women together into a collective unit of motherhood. As Offred says at the birthing scene, “we are no longer single”(125).  It is this fertility of their bodies that forces them into this red collective of motherhood even though these women become dissociated from their own bodies. This is particularly evident when Offred goes to take a shower and doesn’t realize until she takes her clothes off how long her hair has grown. Offred says, “I don’t want to look at something that determines me so completely”(63). It is this anger against society’s ideas about her body that causes this dissociation between the mind and the body. She later goes on about how delicate the human body is by saying, “the body is so easily damaged, so easily disposed of”(105). This shows that she realizes that the only reason she is still alive is that of the value her body has for society. It is this body that allows her to be part of a collective within this community- the handmaids. The impact of this community on these women is so strong that when another woman goes through childbirth, they feel the same amount of weight and pain that happens during the experience of birth. Offred talks about the experience after watching a birth with these other handmaids,”We might be bundles of red cloth. We ache. Each of us holds in her lap a phantom, a ghost baby, What confronts us, now the excitement’s over, is our own failure”(127). These women know what will happen if they can not produce a child for their wives, they will be shipped away to the colonies- to their death. The danger of being a handmaid is the punishment of not being able to produce the outcome society wants from them- a baby. “The danger is gray out”(200) to be stripped of the red cloak which protects them from the rest of society. In order to survive as a handmaid in this society, these women have to be able to adapt to the new cultural norms within the patriarchy. “Humanity is so adaptable”(271). It is these small details that help the women cope with having to adapt in order to survive yet not forget their past and who they truly are outside of this society.            It is in these little acts of rebellion, in which, we can see the importance of human nature and mankind- that help shape a society in both Her and The Handmaid’s Tale. Without individuality and creation, mankind would not be able to evolve and progress thus creating a dystopian like society- that is continuously is stuck in ambivalent concepts. The varying degrees that a society is dystopian or utopian is based on the potential progress a society can create through new ideas based on originality-new ways of thinking or imitation of other societies by incorporating different ideas or ways of thinking from surrounding environments. All societies have the potential to become a dystopia but no societies are able to become a complete utopia due to the population’s individuality, originality the basis of creation or the lack of such facets which then create a society based solely on imitation. Societies are always striving to become the closest thing to a utopia but in reality, this is impossible due to the creation of progress and evolution that societies are constantly going through.