Inclusion in Mainstream Schools and Disability Standard for EducationTran K. LinhTokyo International UniversityJanuary 20, 2018 “Please understand I have a disability, not a disease”. An appeal of a piteous disabled kid has aroused our compassion and awakened us to the inequitable discrimination against the handicapped. Recent report from The Disability Right Commission demonstrated a tragic fact that disabled students confront blatant challenges in mainstream school and even worse, in some countries, they are being denied access to public school. Therefore, parents, especially those who are raising kids with healthcare needs, grapple with selecting school for their children. Regardless of the opportunities mainstream schools grant, children with disabilities should be facilitated special education to dispose of school bullying, learning difficulties, and becoming a distraction in typical classroom. Bullying disabled children is a prevalent social phenomenon occurs in mainstream school and fails to provide those children with a healthy education environment. Children with special needs encounter sarcastic attitude, aggressive behaviour, being victimized and even worse, physical violence by non-disabled bullies. According to BBC News, a research carried out by London University’s Institute of Education revealed that in England, disabled students are 20 percent more likely to endure persistent school bullying than their non-disabled peers. What is more, Little (2002) found that up to the extortionate rate of 94% of students who experienced victimization is those with healthcare needs. In the word of Swearer and colleagues (2010), contrast to normal students, the population with disabilities endure increased verbal abuse, social exclusion, and physical aggression. The reverse implication of this urgent problem is formidable and predictable. Those harassments pose considerable impacts to the integration and development of disabled victims, leading to low self-esteem, poor academic performance, and moreover, the depth of depression which results in antisocial behaviour and increasing tendency of committing suicide among the youths. For this reason, specialist school is fundamental to eliminate discrimination and bullying perpetration. Another major concern is students with intellectual restriction might fall behind typical syllabi when participating in typical classroom. Children who suffer from learning difficulties such as dyscalculia, dyslexia, dysgraphia are slower to understand teacher’s instructions, acquire knowledge and keep up with their peer friends. A recent study by May & Stone (2010)on disability stereotypes, it is hypothesized that individuals with disabilities have inferior learning capability than their typical developing peers. According to Ise et al. (2010), “Children and adolescents with poor reading abilities are more likely to develop emotional and behavioral problems (Arnold et al., 2005; Fluss et al., 2009; Maughan, Rowe, Loeber, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 2003; Morgan, Farkas, Tufis, & Sperling, 2008) and have a greater chance of school dropout, low educational achievement, and unemployment (Daniel et al., 2006; Maughan, 1995; Maughan, Hagell, Rutter, & Yule, 1994)”. Adaption to mainstream curriculum requires considerable time, attention and great patience of sympathetic educators. Pertinent curriculum and special teaching approach need to be established to assist in enhancing special students’ studying habits and ensuring that they are on the right track with their education. Specialist schools are therefore beneficial to offer disabled students with such facilities to help them reach their full potential. On the other hand, disabled students can negatively affect the learning process of other students. Due to their syndromes, it is difficult for kids with attention issues to concentrate, filter out distraction and control impulsive behaviours. This would mean that nondisabled students in class are being attracted by their interruptions, and as a consequence, the quality of the classroom decreases vastly. Furthermore, although they are expected to remain seated, hyperactive kids cannot help moving from place to place. Cassady (2011) claimed that, children with autism and emotional behavioral disorders demand meticulous attention from teachers since they have heightened or lowered acuity of the senses and repetitively exhibit particular behaviours than their peers. They are always curious about things around them, touching and fiddling with items, wriggling in their seat or wandering off and teasing their classmates. Therefore, in case of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, they represent unwanted distraction to their classmates. Instead of confining those unique free spirit inside four walls and force them to obey rigid discipline, special education with individualized program that addresses student’s specific needs allows them to spread their wings and make notable personal progress.However, some people might argue that in mainstream schools, disabled kids have opportunities to integrate with other children, to have people treat them equally and to teach others the lesson of sympathy and understanding. It is undeniable that public schools furnish special children with educational opportunities to be exposed to typical language and social interaction. Nevertheless, students with learning disability might not receive the help they needed due to teachers being insufficiently trained or preoccupied with others. For the purposes of majority, general educators might be oblivious of their duties and neglect their special students. Not to mention, the lack of knowledge and empathy among education providers are two significant challenges. Despite the fact that instructors should treat these populations impartially and recognize the complexity of diversity, they prefer not to educate those pitiful thus mischievous children because of their imperfect appearance or their inane thoughts. Lopes, Monteiro, Sil, Rutherford, and Quinn (2004) noticed that the majority of teachers do not advocate inclusion in mainstream schools because of the lack of ability to instruct or differentiate between ordinary and extraordinary instructions. Research has found that teachers’ attitudes towards students might be affected by the nature and type of the disability (Ryan, 2009, p.185). Avramidis et al. (2000) discovered that the educator’s opinions towards special-needed students significantly depends on their nature and acuteness of the disabilities and external tension that teachers have (p. 289). According to Lopes et al. (2004), students with special needs “present serious challenges to teachers because they are difficult, time-consuming, and frustrating” (p. 413). Therefore, Cassady (2011) claimed that, teachers do not provide disabled students with necessary assistance and encouragement as they have negative attitudes toward inclusive education and unwilling to have those populations in the classroom. Additionally, in case of children suffering from dyspraxia, limited mobility, severe physical restriction and in need of medical equipment, public schools are not considered as the feasible selection as they could become overwhelmed or disruptive in a typical classroom setting.The inclusion of individuals with special needs in mainstream schools has always been a controversial theme of fierce debate. Thus, regardless of the goal of full integration into society, disabled children in general deserve specialist education to get rid of bullying perpetrators, to exploit the individualized curriculum and to avoid disturbing other students’ learning process. In addition, parents might take other programs such as private schooling, homeschooling or private tutoring into consideration to determine which education is the best option for their disabled children.References Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). Student teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(3), 277-93.Cassady, J.M., (2011). Teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with autism and emotional behavioral disorder. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2(7). Retrieved from: https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1127=ejie.Curtis, P. (December 9, 2002). 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Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(6), 483-499. doi: 10.1177/0022219409355483.Ryan, T. G., (2009). Inclusive attitudes: A pre-service analysis. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 9(3), 180-187.Sellgren, K., (June 20, 2014). Disabled children ‘More likely to be bullied’. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/education-27902500.Swearer, S.M., Espelage, D.L., Vaillancourt, T., Hymel, S., (January 1, 2010). What can be Done about school bullying? Linking research to educational practice. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 38-47. doi:10.3102/0013189X09357622.