Heuristics and biases are important when
it comes to judgement as it helps to determine an outcome. There are many
different types of heuristics that help individuals form a judgement therefore,
enabling them to make a decision e.g. Availability Heuristic. In addition, the
Dual – process model consists of the Heuristic analytic theory (Evans,2008)
which helps to construct a hypothetical possibility or mental model. In this
system, it involves task features, current goals and background knowledge being
incorporated to construct a model to make a judgement. However, with the theory,
it shows heuristics isn’t the only factor that helps to make a judgement
therefore, it may alter the mental model using more analytical thought
processes such as intelligence and time to reach a conclusion.
conducted by Evans and Stanovich,2013 has evidence to support the dual process
model through neuroscientific evidence. The neural imaging studies show that
belief–logic conflict is detected by the brain and when reason-based responses
are observed, different brain areas are activated than when responses are
belief-based (De Neys, Varta-nian, & Goel, 2008). This supports the dual
process model as it supports the second system as it involves the emotional and
subconscious aspects of a person. Thus, reason-based responses are observed due
to the emotions evoked from the model as system one is based on our intuition
and gut feeling which could influence a decision.
study conducted by Folkes 1988, the aim was to find the relationship between availability
heuristics and perceived risk of product failure. Through a correlational study,
it suggested receiving the wrong order was associated with judgment about the
probability of future service failure. In this way, it shows the use of availability
heuristics is useful when making a judgement as it uses a mental shortcut
therefore, allows us to make a quick decision using the information we have already.
This is useful as system one in the dual process model suggests background
knowledge is used to create a mental model in order to make a judgement.
A study by
Kahneman and Tversky 1973 presented one group was told there were 70 engineers
and 30 lawyers vice versa, they found the base rate had little influence. They
concluded participants make a decision from the personality sketch and their
knowledge of stereotypes on the two careers.
research by Stanovich and West (2000) suggest the dual – process model give
different responses in tasks. Those who had a high cognitive ability showed
they used analytic process whereas low cognitive ability indicated the presence
of heuristic processes which occasionally led to incorrect answers. Additionally,
the dual process theory suggests that in order to reach a judgement individual
need to choose between two different pathways. The heuristic process it involves
choosing the right information to the situation whereas the analytic process
the information selected from the heuristic process is used to make a judgement
about the situation. Therefore, we expect participants to choose the incorrect
answer when using the heuristic process rather than the analytical process. This
highlights an issue with the theory as it is not clear how a person decides
which process to use as well as only using correct answers as a way to measure
the success of the model.