IntroductionOceanography is an amazing career that presents many exciting new techniques and knowledge. This career is also known as marine science, and it is the study of the world’s oceans and ocean currents, including its aspects of chemistry, physics, and meteorology etc. Oceanography also studies marine organisms, plate tectonics, and sea floor geology. Oceanography also has many sub fields within it. For example; Biological oceanographers study the plants and animals in the marine environment. Geological oceanographers investigate and explore the ocean floor and the processes that form mountains, canyons, and valleys. Physical oceanographers study the physical processes in the ocean waters, including waves, tides, eddies, currents, and the interactions with the atmosphere. The final subfield of oceanography is chemical oceanography. Chemical Oceanographers study the composition of seawater and the chemical interaction of the seawater with the sea floor and atmosphere. They map the chemicals found in seawater to understand how ocean currents move water around the globe. They also study how the carbon from carbon dioxide is buried in the seafloor, which highlights the key role of the ocean when regulating greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (a contributor to global warming. In this specific subfield of oceanography the main focus is on the unusual and sometimes the toxic fluids that are released by the “hydrothermal vents in the ocean floor.” Entry Requirements To become an oceanographer; biological, geological, physical, or chemical you must meet mandatory requirements. To even be considered when applying you need a degree in oceanography and a postgraduate master’s degree (MSc). Another requirement is a PhD in oceanography, math, environmental science, or geology. Experience in a laboratory or marine research center is also ideal when considering this choice of career. There are also many skills necessary to successfully perform your job. These skills include mathematical skills, accuracy and attention to detail, proficient observational and practical skills, strong speech and written communication skills, proficient computer literacy, and strong leadership and teamwork attribute. Time management is also very significant in this career as well as determination, perseverance, and problem solving skills. The openness to new ideas as well as the concepts of scientific disciplines other than one’s own is also a skill that will become very useful. Day-To-Day TasksAs an oceanographer you have many ongoing tasks you are in charge of handling. These tasks include; the planning and carrying out of big research expeditions, preparing scientific equipment used when conducting research, tracking the changes occurring in the environment, managing research projects and leading teams. Other tasks include; designing experiments to test developing ideas, using computer techniques to produce models like maps of the ocean floor, some common and important tasks also include writing reports and publishing/presenting findings.Responsibilities Not only are there many tasks needed to be performed but there also comes many responsibility. Some common responsibilities are the collecting of samples and data from the sea floor, sea or atmosphere using special equipment and techniques. Oceanographers are also responsible for the analysis of those samples collected. Attending conferences and going on research cruises as well as submitting proposals to obtain funding is also a very important responsibility. Salary Salary is often a factor for some when choosing a career. The average yearly salary for an oceanographer with a bachelor degree is approximated around $33,254. Postdoctoral researcher’s salary ranges from $53,200 to $80,300 whereas “tenured professors” can make around $100,000 to $150,000.HistoryThe very beginning of the study of oceans started in the pre-historic times. Information about tides was recorded by Strabo, and Aristotle in there writings and observations. Due to the fact that around 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by oceans providing a significant amount of information about them to be researched, explored, and studied.The very first chemical laboratory for the research involved with oceanography was founded by Erik G. Moberg in 1930. This became the beginning of a tradition of excellence in chemical oceanography and marine chemistry, which continues to this very present day.How is Chemistry Used?Oceanographers tend to mainly focus on the physical and chemical processes of the oceans. They measure important parameters including salinity, temperature, current speed, gas fluxes, chemical components, and even the age of the water. They use science and mathematics to understand and explain the complex interactions between the many components of the ocean such as sea water, polar ice, freshwater, the atmosphere and the biosphere. They then use the calculations and research gathered to predict how the oceans work, and how to make the most beneficial, efficient, and sustainable use of its resources. AdvancementsEquipment is a significant advancement within in this particular career. This equipment is extremely important when collecting data so the fact that the technology works or if it makes it easier for the oceanographers is significant. Some advancement in technology includes;The TowCam: this is specially designed to “handle the extreme conditions of the deep sea.” The TowCam is the first digital camera designed to take a high-quality image of the ocean seafloor at extreme depths of almost 6,100 meters (20,000 feet). It can collect rock, lava, and water samples. This has been used to study seafloor environments; it has captured approximately 280,000 photographs and has collected more than “300 samples of volcanic glass.” Through these samples, TowCam has facilitated the study of underwater geology and volcanology around the globe.JASON: this is a remote-controlled, ‘deep-diving vessel’ that allows oceanographer scientists to explore the seafloor efficiently and effectively. JASON can be guided through ocean environments as deep as 6 kilometers (4 miles) for days. Two robotic manipulator arms allow scientists to collect rock samples, water, and sea life, and give them the ability to construct and maneuver other research instruments. Designed water containers collect the ‘extremely hot waters of hydrothermal vents and preserve the chemical composition of samples. JASON has explored many shipwrecks and as part of the JASON project, the “vessel broadcasts images and reports to classrooms and over the Internet,” allowing the public to view into deep-sea environments.BIOMAPER: is used to study phytoplankton, krill, and zooplankton. BIOMAPER uses five sonar units that are designed to transmit sound waves of different frequencies. These frequencies echo back to the research unit. BIOMAPER then uses these echoes to calculate how large and how far “away particles” are. BIOMAPER also measures water temperature, salinity, oxygen, and chlorophyll. By mapping and measuring the environment of this sea life, “BIOMAPER helps oceanographers describe the habitats and health of the open ocean.”All of these machines have had a major impact in this career. It has helped collect research far easier than the earlier days, and not to mention all of this equipment has the ability to go far beneath water levels at a depth humans would not be able to handle.ResearchResearch within this career is conducted by using chemistry and the TowCam, JASON, and/or the BIOMAPER. Oceanographers tend to work generally in a lab or office and spend large amounts of time at sea. Research is often carried out from a ship or an offshore platform, a road trip, or even a remote location, and is often collected using diving equipment and submersible vehicles.DiscoveriesThere have been many discoveries in this career that has created a deeper understanding of the ocean and everything in it. There is continual research on the Carbon Cycle, through extensive research the theory that “atmospheric carbon dioxide” levels has a major influence on the Earth’s surface temperature, as well as the integral part of the carbon cycle, has developed and has been proven true. Geochemistry of Rivers and Estuaries is also a major research project still be studied to this day. This research surrounds the fact that the ultimate source for chemical constituents of the sea is mainly caused by rivers that deliver “dissolved and particulate input through estuaries.” Finally Sediment Geochemistry is another but far not the last research that explains and presents the idea and proof that chemical reactions that occur in the ocean change dramatically and are caused by a set of microbes when the “oxygen concentration is exhausted.”Common problemsThere are not many problems oceanographers come face to face with but when they really think about it one thing will sure come to mind. When conducting research the common issue of mathematical error takes place. In marine physics, the problems usually surround geophysical hydrodynamics. This is defined as the hydrodynamics of the natural currents that rotate “baroclinic” liquids. Some other errors can be as simple as technology malfunctioning or natural forces or even slight research mistakes.Fun FactsOceanographers have determined that the earth experiences one hundred earthquakes per day and unfortunately most of those occur under the ocean waters. Also a majority of volcanic activity has been proven to occur under the ocean waters as well.Oceanographers have studied the ocean for a long time now. This ocean covers approximately seventy one percent of the earth and contains ninety seven percent of the Earth’s water. Conclusion Being an oceanographer is an adventure under water. It is full of so many skills and responsibilities and has a great salary. They explore and study the wonders waiting to be discovered and there are many positive aspects in this career. Being an oceanographer is truly an amazing career.