Jatropha flower 25:1. Male can develop at the

is a monoecious plant bearing both male and female flowers at each
inflorescence. It has racemose inflorescence in a dichasial cyme pattern.
Inflorescences are formed at the terminal or axis of the branches with higher
number observed in the areas exposed to sun (Carels 2009). Inflorescences are formed by the grouping
of 6 or 10 individual cymes, resulting in secondary inflorescences. These
secondary inflorescences are located at the base of the main inflorescence with
tertiary inflorescences attached to it (Burger and Huft 1995). Length
of the inflorescences varies
from 5 to 25. Jatropha flowers are pale green in color, with a
pedicle measuring 0.6cm to1 cm in length. Male flowers measure around 0.75cm to 0.9cm in length and 0.3cm
to 0.4cm in width, while the female flowers measure about 0.7cm to 0.9cm in
length and 0.3cm to 0.4cm in width. Flowers have five sepals; with each sepal ranging
from 0.40cm to 0.60cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.30cm width in the male flower, and
approximately 0.45cm to 0.75cm in length and 0.20cm to 0.40cm in width in the
female flower.

sexes (male and female) are present at the same inflorescence with single
female flower present at the top surrounded by male flowers (Figure 2. ). First sub-branch may
produce female flower at the second joint of dichotomous branching (Luo et al.
2007). There are three types of flowering sites in the inflorescence: female
flowering sites where female flower forms, male flowering sites where only male
flowers are formed and the intermediate flowerings sites where both male and
female flowers are formed. Jatropha is a male dominant plant with a ratio of
male to female flower 25:1. Male can develop at the female flowering sites
whereas the possibility of the development of females at male sites is zero. This
shows the inflorescence has lesser number of female flower (average 8-10)
despite of having 18 female flowering site (Wu et al 2010). The female flower
consists of stigma, style and ovary, which are green in color. The ovary is glabrous (ca. 2.5×2 mm), comprises of three
ovules with style columns (0.5 mm in length) and style branches (1.5 to 2 mm in
length). There are three stigmas and styles. The bifid stigmas are green in
color and are darker than petals and ovary. The floral base consists of five
flat square yellow glands (0.02 mm in lengths) (Luo et al. 2007). The male
flowers are greenish yellow in color having 10 stamens. The stamens are diadelphous
(fused by filaments in two separate bundles). The outer tier of stamens is free, while the inner tier
is united. The stamens are dicyclic (occur in two whirls) and are 2 to 7
mm in length. Each stamen has four microsporangia arranged in two thecae (Liu
et al. 2007).
Anthers are yellow in color and 10 in number and are 1 to 2.2 mm in length. They
are dithecous (two anther lobes), dorsifixed (attached dorsally to the filament), and
dehisce by the longitudinal slits. At the floral base of male flowers, five oval-shaped yellow glands are
present. Pollen are globular, verrucated and binucleate (Dehgan and
Webster 1979; Luo et al 2007). Pollen becomes nonviable after 48 hours and their
abortion may occur in one/two microsporangia per anther (Liu et al. 2007; Luo et al 2007).
Presence of hermaphrodite flowers have also been reported, which are
similar to female flowers with 8-10 stamens. Pollens of hermaphrodite are weak
and less viable with lower germination rates (Abdelgadir
et al. 2010).

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