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NO THANKSGET THE APPSICKLE CELL DISEASE.docxSICKLE CELL DISEASE                        SICKLE CELL DISEASEChris George Abcott InstituteAbstractThis dreadful hereditary disease affects  roughly  500 african americans in the United States, Because of the sickle cell shaped the cells, passing through the veins cause chronic pain and low oxygen levels, making basic activities difficult, because sickle cell is hereditary, cures are difficult to discover.  As much of the damage has already begun before a person is diagnosed with the disease.  The difficulty of the task at hand required even more depth research described In this paper.  The solution, after modification and testing has the potential to relieve chronic pain, and restore oxygen levels to a healthy level.  Scientist recently have had some limited success In using genetic engineering techniques to get good copies of Beta Globin gene Into people with sickle cell disease.  If they can succeed In this endeavor, people with the disease may be cured but will be able to pass the genes Into their offspring.  I choose the Sickle Cell Disease, because two of my close relatives died from this disease.  Each year  on holidays and their birthdays I am saddened that their presents are no longer here dying from complications of the sickle cell disease.  Being that sickle cell  inherited in my family, has put knowledge in me to get sickle cell screening each year for safety precautions detect any signs of this disease.  History Of Sickle Cell Disease  Sickle cell disease affects person of african descent, Sickle-cell disease is inherited, To inherit the disease, both parents of a child must  have sickle trait. If one parent has sickle trait and the other parent has hemoglobin C trait or beta thalassemia trait. When both parents have sickle trait (or another trait), they have a 1 in 4 chance of having a child with SCD. This risk occurs every pregnancy.The Description Of Sickle CellThe Sickle Cell Disease Is inherited form a condition In which there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells change from the normal round similar to a doughnut shape to a long pointed shaped like a sickle or banana. Once the blood vessels get  blocked, the flow of  oxygen cannot  flow to parts of the body.  Soon as body recognizes these red blood cells are abnormal the body destroys them faster than usual resulting in anemia.          Signs & Symptoms Of Sickle Cell Disease Signs and symptoms can vary from person to person and can change overtime.  Sickle cells  easily die, leaving the body without enough red blood cells.  Red blood cells last 120 days.  Sickle cells die about 10 to 20 days leaving the body with a shortage of red blood cells.  Sickle cell disease is a disorder of the red blood cells the entire body can be affected.  When the body can’t get the oxygen It needs to feel energized,It will causing fatigue.  Which causes a pain crisis can be brought on by, Illness, temperature changes, stress, dehydration, but often a person does not know what triggers or causes, The crisis.  Pain: comes when the sickled red blood cells get trapped In blood vessels, blood cannot flow to an area of the bone.  This results In a lack of oxygen to this area and episodes of pain starts.   Infections People with sickle cell anemia have an increased risk of  Infection, and fever can be the first sign of sn infection.   Sickle Cell Disease Can Lead To A Host Of Complications, Including;Delayed growth: red blood cells provide your body with oxygen and nutrients needed for growth.  .  A stroke: can occur If sickle cells block blood flow to an area of your brain. Acute chest syndrome: This life threatening complication causes chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing.    Pulmonary hypertension: This complications usually affects adults rather than children.   Organ damage: sickle cells that block blood flow through vessels immediately describe the affected organ of blood and oxygen.   Blindness:  Sickle cells can block tiny blood vessels that supply your eyes causing major eye damage.Leg Ulcers: sickle cell anemia can cause open sores on your legs.  Gallstones: The breakdown of red blood cells produces bilirubin in your body can lead to gallstones.  Priapism: men with sickle cell anemia can have painful, long lasting erections, a condition called priapism.     DiagnosisPeople who do not know whether They carry an abnormal hemoglobin gene can ask their doctor to have their blood tested.  Doctors can diagnose the sickle cell disease before a baby is born as early as 8-10 weeks.  The test looks for the sickle cell hemoglobin gene instead of abnormal hemoglobin.TreatmentBabies born with the sickle cell disease should be referred a hematologist doctor with special training in blood disease.  All sickle cell patients should see their sickle cell care providers regularly.   In sickle cell disease,  the spleen does not work properly or does not work at all.  Penicillin is started shortly after diagnosed usually before 2 months of age. Particularly If a person has hemoglobin or hemoglobin SBO thalassemia since people with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious bacterial infections.  Bone marrow transplantation Is the only way to cure sickle cell disease.  Most success for this treatment comes when a matched sibling is able to donate stem cells.  Bone marrow Is a soft, fatty tissue inside the middle  of the bones where blood cells are made.  Bone marrow or stem cell transplant Is a procedure that take healthy cells from one person to the donor and puts them into someone whose bone marrow is not working properly.  Bone marrow transplants are very risky, and can have serious side effects, including death.  Bone marrow or stem cell transplants are only used in severe sickle cell disease cases for children who have minimal organ damage.Anyone with sickle cell disease, you should get as knowledge as you can about the disease. To prevent and control complications that may set off a crisis. Avoid overexertion and dehydration. Take your medicines as your doctor prescribes.  Make and keep regular appointments with your sickle cell doctor or medical team.Your sickle cell doctor or medical team can help prevent complications and improve your quality of life.  Coping with pain every person experiences pain differently, work with your doctor to develop a pain plan  that will help you. Such as over the counter medicines, as well as medicines that you get with a prescription.  You may also find other methods that help your pain such as.  A heating pad, a warm bath, a message,physical therapy, acupuncture. My graph on the poster board shows the average life expectancy for people with sickle cell disease from 1900 to 2000. In 1970 life expectancy begins making a increase, rising around 14 years In 1973 and surging to cover 40 years by 2000.  The lifespan for people with sickle cell disease Is In part due to clinical use of penicillin, hydroxyurea, and blood transfusions that are proven to be safe and effective interventions In landmark NHLBI- funded trials.  In the United States, most people with sickle cell disease are of African ancestry or identify themselves as black.  About 1 in 13 African American children with sickle cell trait.  About 1 in every 365 black children is born with sickle cell disease. Prophylaxis with Oral Penicillin in children with sickle cell showed that penicillin prophylaxis in children could prevent deadly infections.  Multicenter study of Hydroxyurea  to prevent organ damage in children with sickle cell anemia ( BABY HUG) trails.  Stroke prevention trial in the sickle cell anemia (STOP) trails.  Showed that yearly transcranial doppler screening and chronic blood transfusions reduced the risk of stroke in high risk patients.  References: Cell Disease (SCD). (2016, November 17). Retrieved January 08, 2018, from Sickle cell anemia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 08, 2018, from  Sickle Cell Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved January 08, 2018, from     Sickle cell anemia. (2016, December 29). Retrieved January 08, 2018, from