Oxygen, four stages to the aerobic breakdown of

Oxygen, plays a big part in aerobic
respiration; the processes and metabolic reactions that take place in cells to
convert the biochemical energy stored in glucose into triphosphate (ATP), a usable
form of energy. Cells in the body combine glucose and oxygen to make ATP which can store and transport
chemical energy within
cells. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are waste
products of these reactions (C6H12O6
+ 6 O2 ? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O).  

There are four stages to the aerobic breakdown of
glucose; The first step, “glycolysis” is a 10-step biochemical pathway where a glucose molecule
(6C) are formed into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3C). 2 ATP are invested in this process; however, four ATP molecules are
gained. High energy electrons are trapped in the reduction of 2 molecules, NAD
accepts the electrons in the metabolic pathway which leaves it with a
negative charge, in which it acquires a proton in form of H+ and
gets converted into NADH (a reduced electron carrier). The other steps of
glycolysis are referred to as respiration.

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The second
step, pyruvate oxidation is a single step in which a carbon is removed from
pyruvate (3C) as CO2, leaving 2 of the original carbons attached to
Coenzyme A. The complex is called Acetyl Co-A. In this process one NADH
molecule is produced. The third step is the kerbs cycle, a 9-step biochemical
pathway that converts the remaining carbons from the original glucose into CO2,
and gains 1 ATP. High energy electrons are trapped in 3 NADH molecules, and 1
FADH molecule (a group of a protein involved in
enzymatic reactions in metabolism) per Acetyl Co-A. The
fourth and final step of glycose breakdown is the electron transport chain
where high energy electrons trapped in NADH and FADH in glycolysis, pyruvate
oxidation, and the Krebs cycle are used to produce ATP through chemiosmosis. Oxygen
is the final acceptor of high energy electrons.

For oxygen to be able to reach the cells and
break down glucose and other molecules it needs to enter the blood stream. HOW?
RESPIRATION?  Oxygen gets transported by binding to the red
blood cells. Each molecule of haemoglobin
(a red pigment present in red blood cells) has the ability to bond with four
oxygen molecules. The four haem-groups present
in a haemoglobin molecule contains one iron atom each that can bind one oxygen molecule through ion-induced dipole forces
forming oxyhaemoglobin. The oxygen molecules are carried to individual cells in
the body tissue where they are released. The binding of oxygen is a reversible reaction (Hb + 4O2    Hb4O2).

In ordinary conditions nitrogen appear as an odourless, colourless, non/metallic,
diatomic gas. Nitrogen can be found in group 15 on the periodic table with
atomic number 7 and 7 electrons orbiting around its nucleus, which of five are
in the outer shell. Nitrogen has two naturally occurring isotopes, nitrogen-14 (makes up 99%
nitrogen on earth) and nitrogen-1. The
properties of nitrogen allow it to form triple bonds with itself, and other
elements, which results in nitrogen being part of a wide range of compounds. https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/n.htm#ixzz53u6kxF00 Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms
and can be found in all living tissues. Nitrogen is a constituent of nucleotides
(the monomers of DNA and RNA molecules) and amino acids which are the monomers
of proteins. Each amino acid contains a carboxyl group (-COOH) and
an amino group NH2) as well as an “R-group”, specific to each amino acid
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NITROGEN IN THE AMINO ACIDS

Phosphorous is an
element that can be found on the periodic table in group 15, with atomic number
15 and with 15 electrons orbiting its nucleus which of five are in the outer shell.
Phosphorous is a part of the nitrogen family but unlike nitrogen, phosphorous has
the ability to expand its valance shell and create up to five covalent bonds. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch10/group5.php

Phosphorous plays a
important role in the energy transfer in cells as part of ATP, and is found in
many other biologically important molecules.
Phosphorus forms the sugar-phosphate backbone of
DNA and RNA molecules essential to all living things. A nucleotide is a
monomer of DNA and RNA and consists of a circular five-carbon sugar, a
phosphate and a nitrogenous base. When a phosphate attaches to the number 5
carbon of the sugar molecule and a nitrogenous base attach to the number 1
carbon of that sugar a nucleotide is formed. DNA or RNA are made up by nucleotides
linked together by phosphodiester bonds. A phosphodiester bond is the bond between
the phosphate of one nucleotide and the number 3 carbon of the next nucleotide.
These bonds form a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecules known as the “sugar-phosphate
backbone”. DNA contains of two strands of nucleotides twisted together to form
a double helix. The sugar-phosphate backbone is found on the outside of this
helix and hydrogen bonds join the nitrogenous bases and holds the two strands
together.