Philip intimate people around us · Play stage?

Philip Zimbardo (phycologist)

–  Was a professor at Stanford (retired in 2008)

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–  Past president of American Psychological Association

–  Most famous with Stanford Prison Experiment 

– Witness of Abu Ghraib trials

? Wrote the book The Lucifer Effect and explain the psychology of evil of how good people do terrible things due to influences and power of authority in different circumstances


Abu Ghraib trials

–       At Abu Ghraib military prison

–       They were leaders / individuals of suspected insurgency

–       War in Iraq of where United States military and CIA kept 3,800 Iraqis detained

–       Terrible treatments were exposed by the discovery of abusive photos in 2013 and deaths of the detainees

–        Physical, sexual violence and violations were forced on these detainees

–        Newest update: the judge rules that U.S. government need to release additional 2,000 photos of Abu Ghraib and other Iraq and Afghanistan military facilities


? Iraq War

–       After 9/11, President Bush decided to invade Iraq with accusations of unconventional weapons and Osama bin Laden 

–       Began in March 2003

–       The evidence was proved to be unreliable

–       Controversial event in current history


George Herbert Mead

–       1863-1931

–       4 stages of role-taking (preparatory stage/ play stage/ game stage)

·      Preparatory stage? imitation

? the impacts of the close and intimate people around us  

·      Play stage? taking on one role at a time

·      Game stage (older than 5) ? understand roles in context and coordination

–       “As children learn to use language and other symbols, the self emerges in the form of play.”

? Human communication through significant symbols

? Significant symbol is gestures individuals make which can be responded with the identical gesture to whom it is directed

–       Herbert Blumer later pinned down the idea into the symbolic interaction theory

–       Animals use signs/ humans use symbols

–       Symbols: must be understood by all users in order to help us communicate abstract ideas, info, and emotions/ interpret situations

? Culture could not exist without symbols because there would be no shared meaning between one and another

–       Generalized other: see oneself through the lens of community or group/ the organized community that the individual belongs to social control

–       The I and the Me: self is the subject/ me is the objective perspective of self


Erving Goffman

–       1922-1983/ born in Canada!

–       The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life: surface acting/ impression management

? Front stage and back stage?

? Front stage (when we know others are watching)

·      Impression management: the nonverbal and verbal practices we engage in to present an acceptable image of one self to our audiences/ expressions we make

·      Impressions one gives: intentional expression one gives

·      Impressions one gives off unintentional expression one gives

? Back stage: when one steps out of character and takes its “mask off”

? We tend to look for cues to define the situation and how we should act