Philip intimate people around us · Play stage?

Philip Zimbardo (phycologist)

–  Was a professor at Stanford (retired in 2008)

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–  Past president of American Psychological Association

–  Most famous with Stanford Prison Experiment 

– Witness of Abu Ghraib trials

? Wrote the book The Lucifer Effect and explain the psychology of evil of how good people do terrible things due to influences and power of authority in different circumstances

https://www.ted.com/speakers/philip_zimbardo

 

Abu Ghraib trials

–       At Abu Ghraib military prison

–       They were leaders / individuals of suspected insurgency

–       War in Iraq of where United States military and CIA kept 3,800 Iraqis detained

–       Terrible treatments were exposed by the discovery of abusive photos in 2013 and deaths of the detainees

–        Physical, sexual violence and violations were forced on these detainees

–        Newest update: the judge rules that U.S. government need to release additional 2,000 photos of Abu Ghraib and other Iraq and Afghanistan military facilities

 

? Iraq War

–       After 9/11, President Bush decided to invade Iraq with accusations of unconventional weapons and Osama bin Laden 

–       Began in March 2003

–       The evidence was proved to be unreliable

–       Controversial event in current history

https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/iraq-prison-abuse-scandal-fast-facts/index.html

 

George Herbert Mead

–       1863-1931

–       4 stages of role-taking (preparatory stage/ play stage/ game stage)

·      Preparatory stage? imitation

? the impacts of the close and intimate people around us  

·      Play stage? taking on one role at a time

·      Game stage (older than 5) ? understand roles in context and coordination

–       “As children learn to use language and other symbols, the self emerges in the form of play.”

? Human communication through significant symbols

? Significant symbol is gestures individuals make which can be responded with the identical gesture to whom it is directed

–       Herbert Blumer later pinned down the idea into the symbolic interaction theory

–       Animals use signs/ humans use symbols

–       Symbols: must be understood by all users in order to help us communicate abstract ideas, info, and emotions/ interpret situations

? Culture could not exist without symbols because there would be no shared meaning between one and another

–       Generalized other: see oneself through the lens of community or group/ the organized community that the individual belongs to social control

–       The I and the Me: self is the subject/ me is the objective perspective of self

http://www.iep.utm.edu/pragmati/

 

Erving Goffman

–       1922-1983/ born in Canada!

–       The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life: surface acting/ impression management

? Front stage and back stage?

? Front stage (when we know others are watching)

·      Impression management: the nonverbal and verbal practices we engage in to present an acceptable image of one self to our audiences/ expressions we make

·      Impressions one gives: intentional expression one gives

·      Impressions one gives off unintentional expression one gives

? Back stage: when one steps out of character and takes its “mask off”

? We tend to look for cues to define the situation and how we should act

http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/sociology-biographies/erving-goffman