Race to groups of people, whether these individuals

in many ways is a social construction that emerged as a consequence of
colonization.  This perspective and its
related elements have been raised by scholars and practitioners alike.  Evidence presented from both the article and
firm shed light on to how race is an evolving social construction as opposed to
a biological genetic complexity.  This
paper will present a narrative that will discuss both the evidence and
interpretation of how race is a social construct.

AsO1  CUS1  outlined by both the film and the by several
authors, race has been determined to not biological, but rather a
social construct.  The film suggests that
there is no gene or cluster of genes common to groups of people, whether these
individuals might be blacks
or white. Where race is evident in the genetic sense is through racial
classifications.  This classification of
individuals would remain constant across geographical and cultural boundaries.
Like race, racial identity is fluid, suggesting identify is shaped by cultural
norms, social norms, individual traits and environmental factors. Due to these
factors and peoples
individual experiences, their perceptions of racial identity shift with
experience, time, and prevailing norms/attitudes of the day.  This perspective, as outlined in the text, is
not simply for those who are multiracial backgrounds, but those who see
themselves beyond racialized categories. These shifts in racial identity can
end in categories that society, has created. 
Such categories
rigid and ill defined.

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According to the
film “Race: The Power of
What Make Look up as an Illusion”, the film suggests the difference
between examining the physical hard science including genetics challenges our common-sense
assumptions of human beings. This film also states that people based on their
genetics can bundledO2  ˆ  into three or four fundamentally different
groups on their physical traits. Such thinking of race being connected to
physical attributes can be traced back to the age of colonization and the 19th
century.  The story we tell uncovers the
roots of the race and its concept in North America.  19th century science, i.e. Eugenics, was an
attempt to legitimatize the false assumptions and untruths about racial
inferiority and the physical body of African slaves and their descendants.  Such propaganda took root in the western
imagination. An example of this would be from the film Birth of a Nation.  This film depicted African American males in
the most egregious form. Conversely, Race: The Power of What Make Look up as an Illusion”, was an
eye-opening tale of how race served to rationalize, even justify, American
social inequalities as “natural.”  19th
century science again was used to normalize such perspective.  Lastly, the film uncovers how race resides not
in nature or in genetics, but in politics, economics and culture. Such a
perspective presents a convincing argument for the social construction of race.

film also suggests that social institutions “make” race by disproportionately
channeling resources, power, status and wealth to all people of color. These
challenges present social inequalities to those who fall outside of the
dominate population.  The reasoning
behind inequality, concerning both race and ethnicity, is to continuously
enhance the power of the dominant group within society. The assigning of the
title of “dominant group” is not reliant on pure data, but is meant to consider
the group’s grasp of power over all minority groups. Though many people many express a sense of
pride as to how they feel, current views suggest America has outgrown any sort
of racism. However, the painful reality shows something entirely different. DespiteO3  awk  that
lack of televised violent oppression of Blacks on our main streets, and the
fact remains that there are numerous people representing our minority groups in
both politics and in business, however, racism still thrives in the United
States.  The film points out that racism is about
systems of oppression and not individual acts. 
Even as data within minority groups rise, mainly due to immigration,
Whites remain in the position of advantage or privilege.  Such place of privilege and the benefits from
that privilege all those hundreds of years ago when the initial European
settlers arrived on the shores
(Higginbotham and Anderson 2012; Lewis et al, 2004) has given whites an
unfair advantage. This is all part of the social construction of race.  However, when it comes to biology, DNA and
the like, all humans are the same and can all be traced back to the same
African tribes that uprooted and settled onto other parts of the world. There
is no scientific evidence that shows a difference between the biological makeup
of any race compared to any other race (American Sociological Association 2003; Angier 2000; Bean et al.
2004; Feldman 2010; Mukhopadhyay and Henze 2003; Eitzen et al. 2014),
despite those who buy into the idea of biological deficiency theories, thus
providing that race itself is merely a way to categorize that members of
society (Higginbotham and Anderson 2009). Based on the evidence, this is something
I believe to be true.   Society has
changed its views on certain racial and ethnic groups sometimes to pile them in
with the mainstream constructs (Brodkin 2009) and others to place them into their own separate
standing (Takaki 1993:10). Much of this was done, again, to keep the dominant
group’s veil of superiority over all others. Science has not changed, but
opinions and ideas surely do. In sociology, this is described using the term
racial formation (Omi and Winant 1994:55)

While reflecting on the readings and
making note of specific instances during my life that I have come to witness
evidence of the text’s mentioned theories and terms, one very prominent bout of
racial formation seems to have happened after 9/11. Before the
terrorist events in New York, Washington DC, and rural Pennsylvania, there
wasn’t nearly as much talk about Middle Easterners and how they differed from
White society. I was 17 years old and lived in Louisiana in a very diverse
neighborhood, and even within that small window of the world I saw an immediate
changed in how people described and treated each other. In my opinion, the
individual and institutional racism aspects fueled each other, and still do.
PeopleO4  RO  became afraid of Middle Easterners, even those
they have lived peacefully beside for years, which created enough of an uproar
to create change in everyday lives- whether it be angry parents wanting
children of Middle Eastern descent taken out of their children’s school, or
Whites taking their business elsewhere aside from Middle Eastern-owned shops. That’s how
institutional racism starts, by the majority taking a turn and essentially
discrediting an entire race or culture, thus trying and often succeeding in
barring them from advancement in any form (Higginbotham and Anderson 2009-78).

defiance of the work that has been done, both within government and (mostly)
among likeminded activists and people, racism is still an obvious part of
everyone’s everyday life. If a white person comes forward to say that they have
never doled out or experience anything having to do with racism, that
perpetuates the ideology through that omnipresence of white privilege. Whites
historically have not referred to themselves racially because most white people
consider themselves as “raceless”, or the norm, basically. This has segued into
a movement of color-blindness, which tries to implicate that race has nothing
to do with how people are treated socially (Gallagher 2012). Digging deeper
into this belief unveils roots of absolute racism, as those involved in the
movement are working towards dismantling polices that made Whites feel as
though they were at a disadvantage, such as Affirmative Action, and legislation confirming voting rights
for minorities (Eizen at al 2014), when these policies are merely trying
to bring minority groups into a more even playing field.

minority groups have not given up their fight within the struggle for equality.
Though I have personally seen an uptick in the audacity of people engaging in
racist activity following recent political happenings, there is a great number
of people within our nation, from the dominant and minority groups alike, that
continue to work on all levels to secure the rights and livelihood of
minorities. The desired result would be the deterioration of institutional
racism and for all races to see each other as equal (Eitzen et al 2014). This
paper was to show in many ways how race is a social construction that emerged
as a consequence of colonization.  This
perspective and its related elements have been raised by scholars and
practitioners alike, discounting the pseudo-science that tried legitimatize such.
Evidence presented from both the article and firm shed light on to how race is
an evolving social construction as opposed to a biological genetic, along with
personal narrative of how this topic has affected and shaped elements of my

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