As observed nowadays, preschoolers” cognitive
development is affected by a lot of factors. It can be by the nature of their
family, role of culture, the school environment, social activities and the
nutritional value they have. With opportunity and practices, preschoolers’
cognitive development can grow more and more adequate in a way the child can be
more productive. The development of the cognitive from infancy to childhood is
dependent to the influences by the growth and maturity characteristics of a
child. A child needs to experience and develop her or his social interactions,
emotional language and physical skills (Greenspan , 2004; McCain,
Mastard 20072010). As time passes by these experiences can able to
reach the stage where the ability to think symbolically, connect feelings and
develop an understanding towards the existence on how the world works. All this
done through reciprocal interactions with adults and peers.
According to Granham-McGregor, more than 200 million in
the developing countries do not achieve the expected level of cognitive
development for the child to have, due to poverty and also the variety of
factors that affects the child’s cognitive development that includes
interpersonal relationship and environmental factor. In the year 2001, in the
country of Australia 48% of women gave her first birth at the age of 30 with
this it is a good factor that she can look after her child’s development who
attends in the preschool. In addition, there is a chance that ages above 30 is
having a hard time to give birth that is why the couple do not to take risk for
another child to be born.
Due to aforementioned observation and information, this
study aims to know the factors that affect cognitive development of the
preschoolers. The researchers wants to find out the quality of the child care
have, the people that surround the child, the interaction of the child to his
or her environment which is the day care center and the nutritional value the
Children’s development are influenced by nature of their
family whether in nuclear, blended or extended family, environmental factors,
interaction to others and early educational experiences. Engaging child to
early educational experiences can helpthe child in an early age to develop and
explore things on his or her own. Children find love and security from his
family that can be form of attachment with people that surrounds him or her. On
the other hand, parents who are more authoritarian can affect the child in a
way that the child can adopt this kind of attitude and become more demanding.
These are possibilities for the child to become more enforcing to become strict
obedience to authority to other person and also there are some cases that the
child might be uncomfortable to other person. With these, child can lessen
their interaction and might be dependent to their offspring. Often these,
children failed to develop the ability to relate effective with others
throughout their life.
The differences of gender play
also a role. A child with same gender is comfortable to interact to each other
because of their common interest. One article shows that parents negative
attitude toward child rearing predicted behavior problems in children. The
parent who demands most can be called as authoritarian. Parent who demand most
and control his or her child for a better academic performance or achievement
in school and interactions to others can make the child feel pressure for a
certain achievement the parent want to his child.
Because multiple environment
factor that influenced children’s outcome there has been a growing interest to
research the effect about the children development. Couples with widespread
interest for their child readiness can be a factor for an early child
The characteristics of culture
also affect children developing social skills (Wardle, 2001). Meaningless
community with violent and unsafe can affect to children’s development. Those
exposed and live to a community with domestic abuse, gang violence and petty do
not feel safe or secure, they can have the feeling of insecurity which can
interfere their total development especially to their social and cognitive
Once the child is in the school
setting, other factors for their development can be developed with the help of
their teacher. Teachers observe their student, they take time to observe the
behavior of each student and try to know his behavior in school and the
environment they have in their home in where the child’s first place to develop
and progress through the interaction with their parents, sibling, relatives and
neighbors. With these the teacher can familiarize the background of the child
and to work the potential connection of negative and positive effects on the
child development. The teacher also
pursued the children to learn conceptual ideas in her or his own way. By being
interactive, children allow themselves to get used in relating to small groups
and become familiarize to new situation. Through this, they can allow
themselves to be comfortable to other person and interact through sharing
attention not only toys but their conceptual ideas on how the world works.
As the children is nearly at the age of 3-5 years old, in
the United States both parents and professionals have to understand the impact
of children who attend some form of regular child care prior to kindergarten on
children’s cognitive and social development.
Research studies examined has weighed variety factors:
the quality of child care has including the classroom practices (e.g. materials
being used during class hours and the daily organization of the activities in
the classroom), the teacher-child relationship (e.g. teacher sensitivity,
warmth and closeness of their relationship) and also the teacher qualifications
to handle a child (e.g. education, the patience and the training levels of a
There are that have conducted in the countries like US,
Canada, Bermuda and Sweden. Their studies examine the issues around the effects
around the effects of a child care quality in terms of after adjusting for a family
selection factor both in short-term and during the preschool years and over the
long term. They try to find out the connection between child care of a
particular quality type and also the effect of this to the child itself.
The better of
child care cognitive and social development for children is evident to support
the contention. These effects found that even after adjusting for family
selection factors related to both quality of child care and children’s outcome.
Family is one of the factors that can affect child
cognitive development. Children who experience the security of a loving parents
create a connection or attachment to each other. Over the past two or three
decades in Australia, there are major changes in their family structure and
diversity. In terms of their family structure, the main changes happened are
the smaller population of families. It means that the rate of fertility in
Australia has been decreased below 1.7 babies per women down from the average
3.5 in 1961. More couples decides to have on higher age to give birth and many
mother gave their first birth is increasing in the22 years and so to around 29
years. In this case that many child were surely take good care by their parents
because the couple will not take another risk to give a birth again in higher
In the year 2001, women who give his first birth at the
age of 30 have the percentage of 48 it is higher compared in the year 1961 with
30%. This event has a big impact top child and with this parents can look after
their child and can able to reach out the needs and attention to make the child
develop as they grow.
Children who enjoy a secure
attachment relationship with parents and caregivers use this as a support to
venture out. They reach out to others and return to the caregiver for support
to explore out again going further into the world of social relationship
(Ainsworth et al. 1978). Aside from the positive changes in the family
structure there are some circumstances in which families are too young to raise
young children. More mothers are working for their child needs because a lot of
child is being raised in poverty. Furthermore, health issue environmental
factor will enter into the situation that can lead to poor child’s cognitive
More than 200 million children in the developing
countries do not achieve the expected level of cognitive development due to
poverty and that can results to the child’s poor health or malnutrition, those
children did not reach the appropriate weight for his or her age. Early Child
Development (ECD) that focuses on their health, nutrition, stimulation and the
formal education is said to bring this positive impact on the development of
the child if these was being given to the child. Children from economically
disadvantaged background in low and middle-income countries (LMICS) (Alderman
2011, Baker, Henningham and Boo 201o, Eagle et al. 2007,2011, Nores and
Barnett, 2010, UNESCO 2006) will lead to poor development and slow progress due
to their health related issues like growth restriction (IVGR) stunting, iodine
deficiency and inadequate agentive stimulation.
Fifteen of the top 24 countries with the highest burden
of risk factors for poor child development round the world are located in
Sub-Saharan Africa. There is 40% estimated population that includes 58 million
school age children have the inadequate iodine intakes. In the year 2010, 47%
estimated in the Tanzania, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote has malaria cases
worldwide. Many of these factors can lead to long term impacts on the child
brain development that changes to the brains structural and its functional
capacity. In this cases, this can affect his or her performance in the school
and adult earnings. It is said that breastfeeding is a protective factor for a
child’s health and development aside from the child’s eating nutritious food.
It can also improve health nutrition and reduce infant morbidity.
Piaget’s theory recognizes four environmental stages that
can make the child progress on their own. These early stages include
sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations and lastly the
The first of the four stages is the sensorimotor stage;
it ranges from birth to two years old. The child can build asset of concepts
and ideas about the reality and how it works through physical interaction with
his or her environment. Creates repeated actions which are pleasurable things
and recognize symbol or the objects performance.
The second is the preoperational stage, it ranges from
two to seven years old. At this stage the child could not able to conceptualize
existing ideas, he or she is not yet ready for mental concepts and need
concrete physical situations for them to act in a given situation. Language is
the hallmark for the development and begins to engage in pretend play such as
mommy and daddy. But, children are still egocentric or unable to take the view
of another person aside from his or her family.
The third is the concrete operations, it ranges from
seven to eleven ages. The child starts to conceptualize as her or his
experiences accumulate. They can able to create logical structures and solve
abstract problems like arithmetic equations using numbers and not just with
Lastly the formal operation, it ranges from the age of
eleven to fifteen years old. At this point, the cognitive structure of the
child can be compare to an adult by which they can have conceptual reasoning
that accumulates their experiences.
During in all environmental stages the child build through
mental maps that can able the child grow more and more adequate. In that way,
the child loses or gain equilibrium and can modify his or her cognitive
structure with this he or she can maintain mental equilibrium.
Children able to learn through take new information from
the accumulation of their experiences which add to their development and can
change to their prior understanding.
Piaget’s explained that children must be more interactive
and undergo each stage so that he or she can move to the next stage. Through
opportunity and support, they can explore things in their own.
of the Problem
The study aims to
know what are the factors affecting preschoolers’ cognitive development in
Basak Day Care Center. Specifically to answer the following questions:
What are the factors that
affect preschoolers” cognitive development in Basak Day Care Center?
How these factors can affects
preschoolers’ cognitive development?
Do these factors improve the
preschoolers’ learning development?
of the Study
gives some educational benefits to everybody involved and to anyone who are
interested to be part of the solution in the educational system.
can be given an idea on how they will interact and take good care their
children who attend some regular child acre prior to higher level of education.
can be guided on what they are going to do in their class hours and after this
they can also make some changes or improvements to the things that can create
development for the child.
Development Officials. They can be more open-minded about the
possibilities of sudden shift of a child’s behavior and it is not because of
the teachers teach his or her students but because of the negative impact of
the child’s environment or the distraction of other people.
Community. They can hopefully be more responsible to the child’s need
and attention because they can be one of the reasons for the child’s
The study aims to know the
factors affecting preschoolers cognitive’ development. The research was
conducted to preschoolers in Basak Day Care Center. The primary goal of the
study is to know the factors affecting preschooler’s cognitive development and
the positive or negative it brings to the child who formally goes to school and
was enrolled in Basak Day Care Center. It is not the aim of the study to
discourage everyone to be supportive on the child. The study was a qualitative
in nature so statistical data was not used in the interpretation of data.
Factors- the reason for the
Preschoolers- those who are
enrolled in Basak Day Care Center.
Cognitive Development- a field
of study that focuses on child development.
research discusses the research design, research environment, research
participant, research procedure, and data gathering procedure, research
instrument and statistical treatment of the study.
researcher use phenomenology as the research design to collect data. The views
and opinions regarding the participants lived experiences about the factors
affecting preschoolers’ cognitive development are gathered.
study conducted in Basak Day Care Center. It is a government public day care
school. The child care is located beside Basak Barangay Hall near Our Lady of
Fatima Church. The building is ground type only.
participants of this research are parent and the teacher of the preschoolers.
We choose them as our participants because for us they are more knowledgeable
and responsible individual than their child. And, we choose 20 participants for
this study. The participants are being picked randomly so that everybody can be
part of the research.
researcher asking first the permission of the principal by giving a letter
about the study conducted in Basak Day Care Center. After the principal allowed
the researchers to conduct in Basak Day Care Center they gathered their
participants and start to interview them one by one. Before they started, they
first give the consent to ask permission from them to have an one on one
interview. And before they start the interview, the researchers instructs them
on what they are going to do.
participants undergo one on one interview with the researchers for data
gathering.The first step to construct this research is to identify the
issue/problem on what are the factors affecting preschoolers cognitive
development. We came up to our problem that needs to be discussed and address.
The researchers also review the previous studies so they can construct or
develop the research questionnaire. Next is the implementation. There are
things to implement just like we distribute the questionnaire and finalize the
instruments that were being used to conduct this research were interview guides
and letter of permission from the parents and principal. Interview guide
consist of 10 questions. The questions are about the topic factors affecting
preschoolers cognitive development. Explanations are also included in the
questionnaire so that the researchers know the reason why the participants
answer goes that way.