Regarding the treatment Kelly-Ann needs to reduce
recidivism, she can be assessed using the Risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model
(Andrews, Bonta & Hoge, 1990). The RNR model assess the risk and needs
of the offender which should drive the selection of an appropriate response
program. Kelly-Ann’s risk to others is moderate to high due to her offence and
background of no secure attachments and inability to control her emotions.
Therefore, Kelly-Ann should receive a moderate to high amount of treatment
based on the factors that perpetuate her violent behaviour.
The Good Lives Model (GLM; Ward& Gannon,2006; Ward&
Stewart,2003) is a useful model which can be used in Kelly-Ann’s case. The GLM
is a strengths-based approach to rehabilitation that aims to increase the risk,
need, and responsivity principles of effective correctional intervention (RNR;
Andrews & Bonta,2010). Research also suggests that the GLM can enhance
client engagement in treatment and reduce dropouts from programmes which is
associated with higher recidivism rates (Hanson, et al., 2002; Olver,
Stockdale, & Wormith, 2011). The GLM helps to encourage positive problem
solving and allows individuals to gain new skills. This could help Kelly Ann to
deal with her emotions in a positive way with coping techniques and reduce her
risk of recidivism.
It can be seen that because of her past, Kelly-Ann would
arguably benefit mostly from cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), anger
management and group relationship building skills. CBT aims to identify and
challenge any negative thinking patterns and behaviour which may be causing
difficulties and aims to change the way you feel about situations, and enable
you to change your behaviour in future.
Kelly-Ann could benefit from CBT as her recent assault could
be seen to have been triggered from the perceived rejection from Mrs Johnston.
This triggered Kelly-Ann and her inability to control her emotions is what
drives her violent behaviour. CBT has also been argued to be beneficial for
emotion regulation. Combined with anger management classes then Kelly-Ann could
have some successful coping techniques to prevent any further offences. A
recent evidence review by the Ministry of Justice suggests that CBT can reduce
reoffending by between eight to ten percentage points (“Transforming
Rehabilitation”, 2013) which could suggest that Kelly-Ann would benefit
from CBT and be less likely to reoffend due to her risk of recidivism.
Along with CBT Kelly-Ann could benefit from anger management
classes alongside a programme based on developing relationship building skills
and interpersonal skills. This treatment would therefore be beneficial as this
could equip Kelly-Ann with the skills to cope with her emotions and potentially
fix her relationship with Mrs Johnson and her mother. Further progress would
see Kelly-Ann developing new relationships.
Kelly-Ann has previously had psychological services visit on
many occasions, however, she felt that they never really cared about her and
that “they just want to tick a box on a sheet”. Kelly-Ann has had these
previous negative experiences; therefore, she may not be willing to trying CBT
or any other forms of treatment due to these past experiences. A large
encouragement for Kelly-Ann could be from her mother or from Mrs Johnston as
this is who Kelly-Ann has formed attachments to. All treatments should take
place in a safe and secure environment for both Kelly-Ann and the therapist.
Regarding the RNR model, CBT should be conducted at a high intensity as well as
the relationship building skills as she is at a moderate to high risk of