RepresentationRepresentation is how media texts present gender, age, ethnicity, regional and national identity. Media companies have the power to shape an audiences knowledge and understanding of the characters and topics. Hypodermic Needle ModelThe hypodermic needle is a model of communications suggesting that an intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver.A potential downside of this theory is that it can influence a lot of people and impose a false perception on a large audience. An example found in many women magazines include weight loss articles, suggesting they should be a certain weight.Uses and Gratifications TheoryUses and gratifications theory is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. It assumes that audience members are not passive consumers of media.In the mass communication process, many initiatives in linking gratification and media choice lie with the audience member. The media compete with other sources of satisfaction. Methodologically speaking, many of the goals of mass media use can be derived from data supplied by individual audience members themselves.One of the drawbacks of this theory is that they have no control over the media and what it produces. What they consume is solely prepared by gatekeepers and may include their influences and perception. These gatekeepers add to, subtract from and organize issues, subjects and stories devoid of the control from the users.Stuarts Hall’s Encoding and DecodingIt is how media messages are produced, circulated and consumed, proposing a new theory of communication. Hall argued that the meaning is not fixed/determined by the sender, the message is never transparent and the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning. There is a “lack of fit” between the moment of the production of the message (encoding) and the moment of its reception (decoding). The meaning of the text is located between its producer and the reader. The producer framed or encoded meaning in a certain way, while the reader (decoder) decodes it differently according to his/her personal background, the various different social situations and frames of interpretation. The message, however, must be correctly decoded by the receiver in order for meaningful exchange to take place. In other words, the message cannot be said to be understood unless it produces intended reaction within the audience. Propp’s Character TheoryVladimir Propp was a literary critic and a scholar who founded the idea that a certain type of character was to be used in every narrative structure. His theory has influenced many filmmakers to writing and producing successful narratives. Propp also suggested that all fairy tales follow a specific narrative structure. Todorov’s Narrative TheoryTzvetan Todorov’s narrative theory basically states that most story’s or plot lines follow the same pattern or path. There are 5 steps in this pattern – equilibrium, a disruption, realisation, restored order and finally the equilibrium again. The Hero’s JourneyThe Hero’s Journey is a pattern of narrative identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development. It describes the typical adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilisation.Levi-Strauss’ Binary OppositionLevi Strauss, proposed a theory of ‘binary opposites’ which entails that the majority of narratives in media forms such as books and film contain opposing main characters. These binary opposites help to thicken the plot and further the narrative; and introduce contrast. For example, in a superhero film this could be good vs. evil. A problem with binary opposites is that they may oftentime perpetuate negative stereotypes.