Stop motion animation, also known as stop frame animation is a cinematographic technique when an object is moved between frames, the camera is repeatedly stopped and then started again. When the sequence of images is played, it creates an the illusion of movement. Stop motion is used a lot more frequent than you would think, it is used in commercials such as the BBC One christmas advert ‘The Supporting Act, music videos like The White Stripes ‘Fell In Love With A Girl’ and television shows like ‘Pingu’ and ‘Postman Pat’ or even films such as ‘Chicken Run’. Stop motion animation has had a long running in history.When stop motion was discovered, it was an ‘accident’, a French filmmaker in 1896, George Melies was shooting a street scene when the film got stuck inside the camera gate, after he finished filming he watched the final piece, he realised that the pedestrians and vehicles had jumped from one side of the street to another.Within Stop-motion Animation there are many smaller sections. 3 main types being Claymation, Cutout and Puppet. Claymation was discovered in the 1990’s, where animators used plasticine to create characters. Every frame taken the clay figure is moved slightly, when all of the photos have been taken it looks as if the clay figure is moving by itself. One of the first feature films to introduce claymation was Billy Bitzer’s “A Sculptor’s Welsh Rare Rabbit Nightmare”.Cutout animation is created by using flat characters and sometimes props that are cut from paper, card and different types of fabric. An example of this is South Park, the first ever episode was made with paper cutouts before it change to a computer animation software. Cutout animation isn’t one of the most popular stop motion techniques but it does date back to 1917.Puppet animation is when a figure or doll is used to create a stop motion film. An example of this is “The Humpty Dumpty Circus” in 1987 created by Albert E.Smith and J.Stuart Blackton of Vitagraph Studios. In this animation a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life, Smith says that he used his daughters toys to create this. This is also one of the first stop motion animation films made.Stop frame animation is a form of animation where each frame is photographed individually. This is also known as stop motion. Not all stop motion includes figures or clay. They sometimes can involve humans, this is referred to as pixelation. Stop motion can also be shown in a flip book.In stop motion animation, the creators use optical illusions. Film theorists often refer to this illusion of movement as the persistence of vision. Persistence of vision works because the human eye and brain can only process 10 to 12 seperate images per second. For example, if you was to look at a bright light for 10 seconds and then look away you would still be able to see it as your brain had stored the image.Frame rate is the rate at which images appear on display.The frame rates used in stop motion is at 12fps, 15fps, 24fps or 30fps (Frame Per Second). Shooting a film on one’s means the animator moves the object they are animating every time a picture is taken. This makes the end result of the animation super smooth but it takes forever. Compared to shooting on twos means the animator moves the object they are animating every 2 frames. This makes the final product good quality and takes less time to animate. Some examples of animated films shot at different frames per second is Shaun the Sheep at 24FPS on twos, Robot Chicken at 30FPS on twos, ParaNorman at 24FPS on ones.Some animators like to change between the two. An example of this is an animator having a puppet/character walking down a street on twos, meaning the image is taken every 2 frames, while in the same frame having a car driving quickly down the road. The car will be animated on ones, so the image is taken every frame otherwises the end result won’t look right as it passes the screen. This will show the puppet moving down the street slower than the car.Joseph Plateau was on of the creators to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image in 1832. He create this through a Phenakistoscope. This consists of two discs mounted on the same axis, normally a handle making it easier to spin.These discs spin together in the same direction, because the first disc has slots on it, when looking at it through a mirror, the pictures on the second disc will appear to move. Phenakistoscope was the final name, but it was refer to as the Phantamascope and Fantoscope. The word Phenakistoscope, or as known in greek ?????????? means “to deceive” and ?? – óps, meaning “eye”, so putting this words together could of been intended to translate into “optical illusion”.The Phenakistoscope was very successful for two years until William George Horner invented the Zoetrope in 1834. The Zoetrope is a cylinder drum with slots vertically in the sides. On the inner surface of the cylinder is a band of images from a sequenced set of pictures. When the drum is spun the pictures blur together which produces the illusion of movement. The word zoetrope was known in Greek as ?????????, ??? zoe, “life” and ?????? tropos, “turning” , this can be translated to the “Wheel of life”.The Praxinoscope came 43 years after the Zoetrope. Invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. Very similar to the Zoetrope it uses a strip of pictures placed on the inside of the spinning cylinder. Although, they are similar the Praxinoscope removed the narrow slits and replaced them with a inner circle of mirrors, placed in the middle so the pictures appeared to move. So when someone looks at the mirrors they would see a rapid sequence of images with a brighter and less blurry picture than the Zoetrope. The word praxinoscope translate to “Action viewer”.Eadweard Muybridge, born in Kingston upon Thames, England was a important for pioneering work in photographic studies of motion. He invented the Zoopraxiscope in 1879. This is an early version of motion-picture projector. In 1874 Eadweard shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife’s lover. Muybridge is mostly known for his pioneering work in animal locomotion in 1877/78. This consisted of using multiple cameras to create the illusion of movement through photographs and his zoopraxiscope.Thomas Edison, famous for making inventions such as the photograph, the motion picture camera and the electric lamp (in particular the incandescent light bulb) as well as the Kinetoscope, made in 1891 and many other inventions. Mostly known for the lightbulb, his other inventions are normally forgotten. The kinetoscope is an early device which is used to show films to one person at a time. Edison inspired many people with his inventions including the Lumiere brothers.In 1894 the Lumiere brothers, who were heavily inspired by the kinetoscope, they used Thomas Edison’s idea but wanted to combine bothe film recording into one device,It all started when the brothers father attended a showing of Edison’s kinetoscope in Paris. Once he came back, he showed the brothers a short film that he bought while he was there. In 1895, the brothers designed their own device, which they called the Cinématographe. The original Cinématographe was patented by Léon Guillaume Bouly in 1982, while the brother patented their own version in 1895. The first footage to be recorded was on 19th March 1895 which shows workers leaving the Lumière factory. The Lumiere brothers went on to develop the first photographic colour process, the Lumiere Autochrome.Willis O’Brien, an american special effects brilliance. He is responsible for The Lost World in 1925, Mighty Joe Young in 1949, and the classic movie King Kong in 1933. He also won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects in 1950. Willis started his early career creating sculptures with mouled clay around them to give the character more personalities. He was then hired by the Edison company to create a series of shorts that was set in a prehistoric era. Over the time working for Edison’s company, he improved his skills majorly. He moved onto creating sculptures covered in rubber, some included rubber lungs, which gave the illusion that the models could breathe.When it came down to filming and creating King Kong, O’Brien visited many zoo’s to watch how gorillas act and how they move in order to create the exact characteristics for his sculpture. By doing this he was able to perfect the fighting scenes. He built the main sculpture out of metal to make the body move in a realistic way with ball joints, he then covered the body in foam and rabbit fur to make the animal seem more real. He created the film through stop motion, moving the character frame by frame and taking photographs.Willis O’Brien passed away 1962. After his passed he was awarded the ASIFA-Hollywood for lifetime/career contributions to the art of animation in 1997.Raymond Frederick Harryhausen was an American-British artist, designer, visual effects creator, writer and producer, he created a form of stop-motion model animation known as Dynamation.