The function of work in society is important
issue of discussion in the last few years. The essence of work is changing quickly and we
should consider ourselves developers of new era. Moreover, some believes the
word job has become ancient. (Bridges, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996),
Furthermore, job certainty has decreased and unqualified worker has increase in
the work force (Ritzer, 1998; Levin et al., 1990). Some commentators even believe
that work vanishing or a major portion of the population (Rifkin, 1995;
Aronowitz and Cutler, 1998). Some believes that America is producing highly
skilled workers of different professions (Handy, 1989; Barley, 1996; Pink,
1998). Some debates that most of the claims are exaggerated, these people
believe that the change in the nature of work is happening at a slow rate and
society is adapting to the change is geographic concentration, technology and
employment operation (Farber, 1995). The demand for labor is derived demand as they are needed to
produce goods and services, so to understand the changing nature of work one
has to start with the way product market have been changing. Globalization and
free trade has increase competition thus, causing changes in the form of
reduction on prices and therefore on labor and other production costs and
increased pressure to compete in tasks quickly, innovation, variety.
(Cappelli et. al., 1997). Deregulation in service
industries has cause barrier to entry to decrease as a result number of new
entrants are increasing as a result cost of structures has decreased as
outdated technology have no sunk cost. Moreover, utilize work system and
employment contracts rely on nonstandard employment arrangements that causes
risk with market uncertainty from the firm to workforce (Belzer, 1994; Keefe
and Batt, 1997; Lipsky and Donn, 1987).
In addition to the
increase in price completion, markets now need to increase their resources and
increase the rate of development and innovate new products. Moreover, they need
to produce different varieties of product. ProdBottom of Formuct cycle times have
declined significantly in recent years (Fine, 1998), and batch production has
risen. U.S. firms due to experimenting with a wide variety of new forms of work
organization (e.g., Appelbaum and Batt, 1994; Cappelli et al., 1997).
have paid less attention to how financial markets influence work structures
than to the effects of product markets. Yet capital markets have always been
recognized as having a major influence on the organizational forms that evolve
in industries and societies (Chandler, 1977; Roe, 1994; Aoki, 1988).
improvements in technology have had enormous effects on the workplace and how
work is conducted. Technology and work are related to each other (Baba, 1995):
work is the processes by which humans convert resources into outputs
(Applebaum, 1992), technologies are the means by which the conversion is done
(Perrow, 1967). Technology defines the ways how a person does his work. Generally,
advancement in technology has three effects on work and occupational
structures. It creates new jobs but also eliminates some existing jobs.
Moreover, it helps increases the skills required on some jobs and decreases the
skills of others.
In case of Morgan-moe’s situation they had to close down stores
due to poor region’s manufacturing economy and had to fire many employees as
their profit was declining. As a result, it can be said that changes in
economic situation can lead to change in work force.
2: DIVERSITY AND AGE
simply means difference. Diversity is identifying that everyone is different in
a variety of different ways. Diversity is understanding the differences between
individual and group. It creates culture and practices to respect and
understand cultural differences. Diversity tells us to create productive
environment which is diverse for client and can be considered as creative
environment. It all about developing a workforce that fully concentrate to
achieve organizational goals as they feel respected and valued (The Law Society
of Scotland, 2013).
refers to the demographic features that specify a company’s workforce, in terms
of race, sex, culture, national origin, age and religion (Dessler,2011). Diversity
is differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual
orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities (Greenwoode,1999).
From all definitions, it can be said that diversity at the workplace has to do
with tolerance of different aspects of individuals within an organization.
short, we can say that managing diversity has to do with benefits of diversity’s
potentials for instance, greater cultural awareness and wider language skills
while at the same time minimizing the potential barriers such as dis-benefits
and unfairness that can undermine the performance of the company (Guetzkow, 1955).
of the tasks of managing workplace diversity is to recognize the differences
among individuals and help them develop their talent by giving them
opportunities to express themselves. Demographics are a large component of
diversity and are a contributor to increases in diversity. A way has to be
develop on how to manage both old and young workers within the workforce. There
are several distinct characteristics apparent in the older aged workforce.
Older aged workers are viewed as high contributors to the workforce, steadfast,
and loyal to the company (Cox,1991). Older workers generally viewed as
dependable, loyal, and dedicated they believe to have strong work ethic, good
performance record, and having years of working experience. Organization must
look into the issues relating to medical benefits, job security, and retirement,
to ensure that the future workforce in an organization will have both old and
young aged workers. Gender is another factor in diversity. The percentage of
women joining the workforce has increased over the years. In managing gender in
the workplace, organization must concentrate on the issues of dependent care,
differences in salaries, and available promotional opportunities. One issue
that is associated with women in the workplace is the glass ceiling. The glass
ceiling refers to barriers that women and minorities face which prevent them
from getting promotions into higher level positions. (Balogun, 2000). Rise in
ethnicity has played a major role in workplace diversity management need.
Individuals with physical and mental disabilities are entering the workforce.
Organizations are becoming more educated on disabilities and are more hiring
employees with disabilities. Today’s employees possess higher levels of
education. The educational requirement and job expectations of organizations
has increased from previous years. Many organizations are seeking college
educated and/or experienced workers. This is an aspect that also contributes to
diversity within an organization.
In case of Morgan-Moe. their average
age of is works force is increasing rapidly as most of the young people has
moved to south in search of job. Moreover, stores where encourage to higher
older worker as they have more experience and do not have child care
responsibilities. The old worker were the saving grace for Morgan-Moe in
troubles times. However, there was risk associated hiring old workers as they
are likely to get out if situation gets bad, resulting in Morgan-Moe sink
researchers indicated that goal setting is essential for achievement in
learning process (Anderman, 2011). Santrock (2011) has indicated that it is
essential to set and achieve short-term goals to move towards to long-term
accomplishment. Meaning, long-term goals are always depend on individuals’
efforts to define and accomplish the goals through setting particular goals
and Latham (1990) have extended the goal theory by listing the five main
characteristics or principles of goal-setting For effective motivations, the
presented goals must possess clarity, challenging, the commitment from the
achiever, provide constructive feedbacks, and appropriate task complexity. I.
Clarity- the presented goals should be productive, unambiguous and measurable.
Therefore, goals should be well defined with a clear mention of the deadline
and less misleading information on the expectation of the achievement. (Supplee,
2012) II. Challenge- the goals must possess sufficient level of challenge to
motivate the individuals to put in more effort in achieving the goals. The
extreme low or high of task difficulty will cause boredom or avoidance of
failure while completing the tasks which affect the result of the goals. III.
Commitment- people will show their commitment if they feel they are part of the
achievement. The most used strategy is to get the individuals to be involved in
the planning, setting up the goals and decision making process . Additionally,
there is a linkage between commitment and task difficulty where individuals who
perceive the goal is difficult and challenging would to be driven and inspired
to achieve the goals IV. Feedback- the
contain of the feedback should be focus on the progression checking, figuring
out the current obstacles, proposal of solution and the need of additional
resources . Feedback could serve as a clear benchmark to guide the executors
for self-evaluation. The inclusion of praise and appreciation in the feedback
process will be served as rewards to motivate the executors to continue work
hard in the task . V. Task complexity- for the goals with higher level of complexity,
have to ensure the individuals do not feel too overwhelmed . Therefore, an
organization must give individual or a group enough training and guidance to
achieve a target.
HR team of Morgan-Moe has developed several programs and one of the programs involves
tracking employees absences and leave and shares that information with
individual employees, giving them feedback about thing they control. This
feedback will help employees to know in which position they stand and might
work as an incentive for them to set a certain goal and try achieving it.
Moreover, another program involve manager do weekly brainstorming session,
during which employees try to understand that they can do better in the future
and make suggestion to improve store performance. Taking suggestion from
employees might help Morgan-Moe to set up goal in such a manner that they are
easy to achieve.
4: ORGANIZATIONAL DOWNSIZING
Downsizing is a reduction in organizational size and reducing
cost of production in order to increase organizational efficiency, productivity, and the
competitiveness of the organization.
Organizational members are
the victims who unwillingly lose their jobs due to organizational downsizing. Researchers define organizational downsizing as a purposeful reduction
of employees within an organization (Hopkins and Weathington, 2006). Early
downsizing used to happen due to poor economic condition but now of downsizing
is not limited to that, it include the need to reduce the number of employees
to meet economic requirement (Dolan, Belout, & Balkin, 2000). Many
organizations may decide or choose to reduce the employees only to remain competitive
after the downsizing is done (Hopkins and Weathington, 2006). Those who
survives find it difficult to adapt to the changes and need help from leaders
to help rebuild the trust and confidence that they lost during the downsizing
(Hopkins and Weathington, 2006; Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003).
Downsizing is a process that every organization
should try to avoid as much as possible. If need downsizing is necessary for
survival, then organization should enough time for preparations and communicate
with employees. Preparations help reduce an employee’s concerns and give him
enough time to work for job and seek other options. Proper communication with employees
help understand the reason that lead to downsizing, the criteria used when
selecting employees to downsize, and what to expect during the changes.
Organizational leaders should address the differences employees may experience
in hopes of making sure motivation and commitment remains intact for the
employees who survive (Latham & Pinder, 2005). Researchers discovered that
committed employees will highly likely stay with an organization after the
commencement of downsizing (Sopow, 2002). Organizational leaders often have
certain traits to become more effective at leading others and gaining trust. leaders should remember that surviving employees to bear the burden to
keep the organization operating in such a manner as if no changes occurred.
Employees in an organization where downsizing has taken place need motivation
and leadership in order to continue to find ways to maintain positive work
attitudes and behaviors while regaining the trust in the organization
Morgan-Moe closed several of their stores with
out giving advance notice and there was lack of communication form the
company’s corporate offices, also there to lack of payments for departing
employees. The absence of official information triggered rumors and gossip
among employees which eventually resulted in the movement IHateMorganMoe
blogspot.com. Thus, damaging their public image. Morgan-Moe could have avoided
the situation if only they had maintained strong communication with the
employees. They should have hired leaders who address the differences employees
may experience in hopes of making sure motivation and commitment. Moreover,
they have at least given the employees enough time to look for jobs or seek
5: ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE
The organization justice theory explains the recognition
and beliefs of organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational commitment,
job satisfaction, and job performance (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). The
three components of the organizational justice theory are procedural,
distributive, and interactional (Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007).
Each element has a different effect on employees and the perception of justice
within an organization. The element of the justice theory help determine dedication
to the organization, gratification with the job, and performance of the job (Cohen-Charash
& Spector, 2001). Procedural justice is the formal distribution of
processes. Distributive justice explains the allocation of work among employees
and the appropriateness of the outcomes. Interactional justice explains how employees
are treated by the organizational leaders. The problem with procedural justice
is an employee’s views of the fairness an organization has with procedures.
When a downsizing occurs, employees feels a change in the methods and
procedures related to completes a job task (Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003). If
employees begin to think they are suffering from unfair decision-making they
may develop negative attitude. Organizational leaders must maintain
communication with the employees to avoid voluntary turnover during a
downsizing, by making sure their work load is balanced (Hopkins and
The concern with distributive justice is the
fairness in the workload. As the downsizing occurs in an organization, many
employees begin to leave. It increases workload on remaining employees as they
have to take additional responsibilities and also has to maintain current
duties. If one employees receive more work than another employee, they begin to
form negative perceptions of distributive. Organizational leaders should make
sure to keep the work allocation is equal among employees as it would help to maintain
a positive attitude with the remaining employees.
Interaction justice helps describe how the
immediate supervisor of an employee influences organizational justice
perceptions more than any other leadership level. Interactional justice is has
two features informational justice and interpersonal justice. Interpersonal
justice refers to the dignity, respect, and sensitivity employees receive from
the immediate supervisor. Informational justice refers to the knowledge and
explanations employees receive from the supervisor/leaders about the changes
and procedures (Wu, Neubert, and Xiang, 2007).