# In certain reaction to occur (usually in seconds).

In this investigation I am trying to find out if and how temperature affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. What am I going to do?  I will firstly collect all of the equipment.  I will then put 20cm of acid into the boiling tube.  I will then place the boiling tube into the water bath and allow the water to reach the desired temperature.  I will then place 2cm of magnesium ribbon into the 20cm of 1. 0 moldm-3 of acid, as I do this I will start the stop watch.  Once the magnesium has reacted I will then stop the stopwatch and record the time.

I will then repeat this experiment so that I can get an average. Once I have done that I will repeat the experiment for all of the 6 temperatures. Which are:  What do I think will happen? I think that the higher temperature will increase the rate of reaction. So the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. I think this because of the following: The rate of reaction is the speed or velocity at which a chemical reaction precedes, expressed in terms of the amount of product formed or the amount of uniti??s time taken for a certain reaction to occur (usually in seconds).

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Thus for the reaction of two compounds (in this case X and Y) that form a product (Z) the equation would be: X+Y=Z The Rate of Reaction varies greatly. Some chemical reactions, such as explosions, happen very quickly while others like rusting occur very slowly. The rate of reaction can be affected by a number of factors: temperature, concentration and pressure, adding a catalyst, surface area/particle size and light. The one that I am going to be investigating and explaining about is Temperature.

Changes in temperature change the kinetic energy of the particles and hence the numbers of successful collisions with enough energy to break existing bonds and make product parties. The minimum energy needed for a successful collision is called the activation energy. For a reaction to take place reagent molecules must collide with each other. When they do so, they must possess enough energy to cause or initiate a reaction. The level of energy needed to start a reaction is called its energy barrier.

The actual energy needed to start a reaction is the activation energy e. g. a splint is needed to start a Bunsen burner in the process of combustion. So in order to break the energy barrier, there has to be enough activation energy so the reaction will take place. Temperature helps to do this as increasing the temperature of the system increases the range of kinetic energies, increases the average kinetic energy and increases the population of particles with more than the activation energy. Reaction mixtures contain particles that have different amounts of energy.

Some particles are of very high energy whilst others are of relatively low or medium energy. The two theories that affect temperature and the rate of reaction are the kinetic theory and the collision theory. The kinetic theory clearly states that the positioning and movement of particles in a substance increases if the temperature increases. Therefore, increasing the temperature increases the energy between the particles and makes them move around a lot more and collide more often with each particle colliding with enough energy to get it past the energy barrier.

If this is done successfully, then the collisions should have no problem passing the requirement stated in the collision theory that are: To react particles must collide with enough energy to break existing bonds and with the correct orientation to bring reactive sites close together. Bringing the reactive sites closer together means that the likelihood of a reaction occurring is increased so in a final research conclusion, increasing the temperature increases the rate of reaction speed. What Equipment will I need to complete the experiment?

Other Equipment includes: Stopwatch  Pipette Measuring Cylinder How will I make it a fair test? There a few different procedures to follow, that would enable my experiment to be a fair one. To make my experiment a fair one, I had to look at a lot of things. Firstly, I looked at the factors that may have affected how well the investigation would work and these were things like using different equipment or doing the actual experiment in different conditions i. e. a colder/hotter environment.