The values and attitudes in which a leader

The idea of leadership initiated from the theory of the Great Man 14. It is a historical perspective that explores the fate of society depending on a ‘powerful and idiosyncratic individual’ (Huczynski & Buchanan, 2013, P.656). Mainstream theories and models have been evolving to fulfil the concept of leadership, however, the most acknowledged mainstream theories of leadership are described below (Northouse, 2007).


Trait approach states that leaders were born with distinctive characteristics. Effective leaders are gifted and inherited with the right characteristics that form a leader; leaders are born not made (northouse, 2007, p 16). Skills approach evolved in the 1950s, where both traits approach and skills approach focused on the leader. It concentrates on the main abilities a leader should acquire; technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills (Katz, 1955). Style approach was introduced, which opposes skills and trait approaches by applying a combination of behaviours; task oriented and relationship oriented. Style approach focuses on how leaders act rather than who they are, they are described as the behaviour of an effective leader. It introduced different leaderships styles: Autocratic, Democratic, and laissez-faire leadership (Mccaffery, 2004). Meanwhile, situational approach was created as it shares a set of values and attitudes in which a leader should follow to deal within a process of activity, and every activity is the solution of a situation (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). later, Contingency theory was proposed by Fred Fielders, his model stated that leader’s personality and situation are important. A leaders’ personality and characteristics are tested within a situation, although they might act effectively in one situation than the other (Northouse, 2007, p 114).

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In addition, Bernard Bass stated that the study of leadership has focused on Democratic and Autocratic leadership styles for almost half a century (Burns,1985, P.3). Therefore, he has introduced two types of leadership styles that work differently; Transactional and Transformational. Consequently, Leadership Styles have been evolving throughout the modern age, Transactional and Transformational leadership styles have been an interest to many researchers (Laohavichien, Fredendall, and Cantrell 2009), therefore the research will only focus and test the effectiveness of Transactional and Transformational leadership styles.