Transient chamber and nozzle walls of rocket

Transient numerical simulation on free convection Kerosene-nanofluid past a moving vertical porous plate in the presence of viscous dissipationAbstractIn this paper we study heat transfer augmentation of Kerosene-nanofluid over a moving vertical porous plate in the presence of viscous dissipation. The nonlinear dimensionless partial differential equations which controls the fluid flow are elucidated with the aid of a robust Galerkin finite element procedure. We use kerosene as a base fluid containing nanoparticles of Copper (Cu), Titanium oxide (TiO2), Alumina (Al2O3) , Cobalt (Co). The controlling parameters like viscosity parameter ( ), Eckert Number (Ec), nanofluid volume fraction ( ) are analyzed for velocity and temperature portraitures, skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number. The equations which controls the fluid flow are taken according to Tiwari-Das nanofluid model. This study contributes to enhance the cooling process of chamber and nozzle walls of rocket engine.Keywords: Free convection, Kerosene-nanofluids, vertical porous plate, Galerkin finite element method, viscous dissipation, Liquid rocket engine (LRE).1 IntroductionA notable provocative interdisciplinary area of research in launching rocket vehicle technology development is cooling of liquid rocket engine (LRE). During the process of rocket launching vehicle both fuel and oxidizer are burnt in LRE combustion chamber as a consequence, hot gases are released from a nozzle to gain the required thrust. As a consequence, both the nozzle and chamber under goes high temperature. In order to safeguard the nozzle and chamber of rocket engine they need to be cooled. Numerous ways of cooling strategies are implemented to safeguard the nozzle and chamber walls. Thermo physical properties of the fluid and flow velocity are the key factors which controls the cooling performance of the nozzle and the chamber walls. Enhance in pressure drop results in the growth of fluid velocity along with requisite pumping power. Kerosene the fuel, is being used as regenerative coolant in the case of semi-cryogenic engine. The thermo physical properties of the kerosene can be improved which can enhance the heat transfer capacity of kerosene which influences the exploration of cooling system for semi-cryogenic engine. Mostafa Mahmoodi and Sh.Kandelousi 33 studied analytically the cooling phenomena of liquid rocket engine. Nilankush Acharya et al.,39 examined the squeezing flow of Cu-water and Cu-kerosene nanofluids between two parallel plates. In this scientific era of smart age the smart fluid known as nanofluid for the first time tagged by Choi 2. Suspensions involving milli or microsized particles create problems, such as sedimentation, clogging of channels, high pressure drop and severe erosion of system boundaries, to overcome these problems Choi 3 used ultra fine nanometered sized particles (diameter less than 50nm) like Aluminium, Copper, Silicon, Silver and Titanium or their Oxides dispersed in a base fluid such as water, ethylene, glycol, toluene and oil. Nanofluids have several cooling applications which includes nuclear reactors, vehicle, transformer, silicon mirror and electronics cooling. In addition these nanofluids can also employed in several areas such as auto-mobile engines, lubricants, heat exchangers, micro channel heat sinks, welding equipment, micro-electro-mechanical system and Wang et al 1. The natural convective flow of a nanofluid over a convectively heated vertical plate was investigated by Aziz and khan 4. The natural convection flow past an isothermal horizontal plate in a porous medium saturated by a nanofluid was studied by Gorla and Chamka 8. Free convection boundary layer flow past a vertical plate was examined by Kuznetsov and Nield 9. Turkyilmazoglu 11 examined the heat transfer in transient flow of some nanofluids over a vertical flat plate. The natural convection flow of a water-Al2O3 nanofluid was developed by Congedo et al. 16. In engineering and industrial systems buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer in vertical geometries have several important applications for instance solar-collectors, electrical and microelectronic equipments containers, petroleum reservoirs, geothermal engineering, thermal buildings insulation, etc. To discuss the prominence of buoyancy force on heat transfer due to fluid flow under several physical conditions, numerous investigations have taken place. The influence of  magnetic field with Navier slip conditions over a convectively heated vertical porous plate was numerically investigated by Mutuku-Njane and Makinde 18. The heat transfer due to flow of  Al2O3-water nanofluid due to forced convection was experimentally studied by Nazari et al. 19.